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TO THE KMTOIt. Sir, —In a recent letter to your paper I intimated my intention to follow up with another, pointing out the proper way to prepare 1 wool for .the market, and at the same time giving some information about the 1 London wool sales. As I know this information will be more or less viluabln to some of the farmers, who are at the present time undecided .us to which market to send, their wool to, I trust you will kindly graJit me space in your valuable paper, to lay it before them. . • I will first explain, for the Itenefit of those HOcking such knowledge, what ought to be done to wool to give-' it a fair chance when sent to market. ■ ' ■ • ' Woolcan be taken offtlie sheep's back perfectly well on a tarpaulin or on oil fcacks laid over the ground where there may not be a boarded floor suitable ;for tie purpose ;' but the fleece cannot .be properly rolled up on anything but a gr.ating, because all locks, dust, etc., must be able to drop away from the fleece while it is being skirted and rolled up. When more or loss locks are found in a

fleece by buyers they take it for granted that every fleece in the bale is alike, and ,make deductions in their^ valuations accordingly;, because locks areseldomworth 4d per lb, while the fleece' wtiol'lriay bo selling at over lsperlb. '". */ The belly wool of etery sheep, no matter what the breed may be, belongs to the pieces, head wool, abd all hairy and stained wool from about the breech, as well as the dark yolky fringe, which will be found on other part* of the fleece when spread on the table.

The fleece ought to be shook gently on the table to free it from sand or any adhering locks that may, hare cpt en* tangled in the staple. , The gWtinfc-may be made of 2in battens—spaces between battens to be liih in the'dear; size of table for small dock, say, 6ft,by 3ft 6in : height of top of table above floor 2ft 6in. It is of the, greatest importance that neither strnwenor any other foreign substance, such as dags, etc., be allowed to remain in the wcol when it in baled or bagged up, arid not a fragment' of black wool should be allowed to mix with the white. Whether our wool is to be- sold in Ashburton or to be classed and repressed for London, all fleeces at shearing should have the pieces carefully taken off, so that, in the event of its being sent to London, the fleeces would not require to be opened out again but merely classed iuto whatever number of types of wool might be found in the clip. Crossbred and merino pieces ought to be kept separate, but locks of all descriptions may be put together. Locks heed never consist of larger pieces than will fall through the grating. , ,--.'< When a clip is large all stained pieces (that is wool discolored by the water of the animal) ought to be carefully baled by themselves and sold as a separate lot. I will now endeavor to show how vain it would be to expect full rates for a small clip if sent for sale by itself to, Lond«n. We will say, for instance, that a farmer happens to have 400' sheep—consisting of 100 merino ewes, 100 firaf cross hoggets, 150 coarse crossbreds, arid 60 lonirwools. Off the merino ewes he might get 80 combing fleeces, 20 clothing fleeces, 100 lb of pieces, and 1011 mof locks. . f , The first cross hogget wool might have 20 or more fleeces witli a break in them. These would have to be mixed with a lower grade of crossbred wooL '_ ' . I The first cross pieces are more valuable than pieces from the other crosses, but i the quantity would be so small that to i-gpke up a bale they, would have to b« mixed with something else. ' ',' The long-wool, that is, wool measuring from 5 inches upwards, would'have also to form part of a bale of the common crossbred wool. v . ', Now mixed bales never fetch:top prices in London, and it would never pay to, send half bales^ becausa,. some of the charges would be as much oh half bales as on whole ones, and each half bale would take up or, at least absorb the price of a f whole wool'pack. When the pressing of ; large clips comes to a finish there, are, in, spite of the, best management, a few mixed Itolekfo'be' ; sent home, but the lower prices obtained for such bates, does not appreciably' afteefc the return for.'tjhe w^ole dip 4.. ' ' At the Lohdori sales all damaged wool and lots of 3 bales, and under, are marked witlv ah asterisk, hence they are called star lots. These lota are not competed for

by the principal buyers,and consequently, as a rule, fetch lower prices than large lots. LONDON WOOL BALKS. If no recent alterationh have taken place in the management of the colonial wool sales in London, the following are the principal acts performed by warehouaekeepersand brokers in relation to them:— Wool on arriving at London is weighed on the Queen's beam in the dock where the ship lies. It is then carted to the warehouse where it is to be stored ; each bale is examined to see if any external indication of damage exists. If damage is found to exist the fact is recorded. The mark and number, with quality marks, are taken account of. Each bale is cut at one corner for sampling. The case is so cut that the crust of the wool can be raised. From under the (frust one pound of wool is taken arid' rolled in a half sheet of brown paper upon which has been inscribed the 1 sKips name,! mark, and number bf the bale. The corner of the bale opened is ■own up, and the bale placed with others of tho same mark and ship, accessible when required. The samples are sent m bundles of 12 to the broker. Before the time of sale the operation of i;; taring" takes place. As every bale cannot be tared, fair representative bales are taken, the cases stripped off and weighed in scales kept for the purpose. Should a case weigh over lOlbs and under jLOjlbs it is called 101b tare, but should it weigh 10Mb or more, it is called 111b tare ; if lljlb it is called 121bs, arid so on upwards. The lotting is agreeable to the instructions furnished by the brokers, the result of their examination of the samples ; their instructions or •'lotting particulars" as they-are Cbllftd give fiimt of all the ship's name,: then the marks, with the lot as catalogued, stating the number of each bale intended to be * Lotting " is thus calling for each particular We from the store floor, and removing it to the show floor, and piling it in its proper position. When ho piled the bales are examined by the broker, and checked by the foreman, and any error rectified. The lotting being completed, cards are made out, one for each bale, stating the broker's name, number of bale, lot number, mark, and quantity in lot. lhese cards are each sewn on to their bale. Each bale is then cut open at the opposite end to that 'from which the .samples were taken, and a portion of the contents exposed for examination by the buyers. During the examination care is taken that, as fat as practicable, the wool drawn out is kept near its own. It i.«, after" the sale, carefully sorted and returned to the bales again. When the weol is delivered lib draft per cut is allowed to the buyer on all-colonial wools. > Pieces pf wool, mixed with rubbish; which accrue in the process of working, are swept up from the various floors of the warehouses, picked, and sold at the first succeeding public sales, and the net • proceeds divided pro r«fo amongst the importers from whose bales they have accumulated. The operations described, With a great many more, such as deliveriii" etc,, ale performed by tho warehouse proprietors, for which they make the following charges:— _ ; On bales weighing liewt and under 3i«wt, 4s 2d; on .bales weighing 3£cWt and under scwt, 5s 6d ; on bales weighing , scwt and under 7|cwt, 7s. These charges are called the consolidated rates, covering all warehouse expenses, and also includes 12 weeks' rent if incurred by the importer, which is sometimes the case when he has to hold wool over to another sale. From the landing of the wool till its delivery from the warehouse brokers have no control whatever over it, they have nothing to do with Weighing it in or out, they do not draw the samples, and have nothing to do with the "taring." On receipt of the samples the broker has to class them for lotting into lots of suitable size, according to their respective qualities and .classes*, and has to report 43arefully upon, the same, as to qualities and values, affixing as nearly as the eye and judgment will admit, the rates proximafcely realized for similar wools at the last series of sales. The broker has to write out copies of his lotting instructions and send them to the respective warehouses, with orders to lay down and exhibit the bales in the order of allotment. He f has to ccc that the wools have been carefully laid down, carded with number of lot, and shown accordingly to his orders, and has to cause such alterations in lotting to he made as are necessary when discrepancies of quality are discovered prior to sale. He has to examine each bale of damaged wool, and see that it is properly shown before sale. After the sale he prepares and issues his invoices to buyers, and renders account sales to the importer, giving him credit on account sales for lib sample from each bale at two-thirds the average price realised for each account sale. He receives from the buyer, and accounts to the seller on or before the fourteenth day after the sale for the whole value of each catalogue. „ ; His experience teaches him that he is studying the interests of the owners in making the lota large, say 20 to 30 bales ©f clean wool, and 40 to 50 of greasy When he receives instructions to make aittftfler lots he complies, but finds that large lots realise better prices than lots of 4, 5, or 6 bales* and single bales rarely ever fetch their full value. When it is discovered that tales contain more than one quality, they are placed lengthways in the gangways. , The delivery weights seldom ever agree with the Colonial weights. Wool as a rule gains in weight by the time it is sold in London; that is, if it lias been shorn in diy scorching r weather in the colonies ; but when shorn in damp dull weather it sometime* loses in, place of gaining weight by the time it is disposed of. I fear I have not explained the taring properly. It ought to be average, riot , single tares. For example, should 6 bales be •tripped, and the average of the 6 cases be iOUbs, the tare of the lot of wool, perhap« amounting to 50 bales, would be settled at lllbs.

Tlse Jwpker performs a great many other ierVicfis besides those which are made to appear here, and receives altogether 4d per bale for sale expenses, and half per cent brokerage.—! am, &c. D. Ouvek. Chelmsford, October 28fch s 1890.

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ASHBURTON WOOL SALES., Ashburton Guardian, Volume VII, Issue 2559, 1 November 1890

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ASHBURTON WOOL SALES. Ashburton Guardian, Volume VII, Issue 2559, 1 November 1890

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