The Ashburton Guardian. Magna est Veritas et Prævalebit. WEDNESDAY JULY 3, 1889. THE DAIRYING INDUSTRY.
Ihe report which the Government have obtained from Professor Long, the the eminent English authority on dairy farming and all matters connected with the manufacture and preparation for bale lof dairy produce, has bean published] It shows that Professor Long has gone thoroughly into the whole subject, and his report is the most valuable contribution to the agricultural literature of tLe colony that has been published for some time. Its length precludes our even summarising it, and we recommend every farmer to obtain a copy, which may be had through any bookseller or direct from the Government printer. Somo of the conclusions arrived at may be placed before our readers with advantage. The disadvantages as well as the advantages of New Zealand as a dairying country are dealt with, and ways of overcoming the former are pointed out. The chief difficulties are the great length of the time of transit and the consequent risk of deterioration m the quality of the butter and cheese shipped, and Conti nental, American, and Canadian competition. The difficulties of successful shipment he believes will be ultimately overcome, so that New Zealand butter may be land«d m London as fine m flavor as the best products of France and Denmark ; but the rivalry of these two countries will continue to prevent the receipts of very high prices. The New Zealand climate and herbage, however, render the oolony a most formidabe antagonist, ; inasmuch as butter oan be produced not only cheaper m the summer, but also cheaper m the winter than m a European country. The fact is of great importance, for it tends to place the colonial farmer upon a very close level with the French and Danish farmers a* a producer for the English market. W ith regard to the question of manufacture, there is yet much to be learned both m butter and cheese making. To attain the most profitable results, the farmer will have to further improve his cattle, and feed them with the utmost care ; while the dairyman will see the necessity of using every means which science and practice afford, to enable him to extract all the cream from the milk and all the butter from the cream, as well as to make, pack, and salt the butter m the most perfect manner. With regard to cheese, Professor Long is not so immediately hopeful. As far as he has been able to ascertain, the highest class of Cheddar chewe is not made m the colony to any extent. 'To make such cheese and to ship it success fully, he holds to be of vital importance, In order to arrive at the perfection of manufacture he suggests that two or three expert makers might be sent to New Zealand to show farmers, dairymen, and factory managers by actual demonstration how the work should bo done, and at the same time explaining the reasons for each process and showing m what particulars old practices are wrong. It appears that this plan has succeeded m Scotland, where Cheddar cheese is made equal to that of the best Somerset dairies, and where many prijsetakers owe their entire success to a short course of practical instruction. He further suggests that much might be done, and at comparatively Bmall cost, by the purchase of stock dairy cattle m England, and by the establishment of an .experiment station, such stations having proved of immense benefit to dairy farmers on the Continent, m solving many a problem and many a difficult question which had been a source of unceasing losb. The opening ot shops m London and other large towns for the sale of New Zealand dairy produce is strongly advocated. Danish shops have been opened m all parts of England, and must increase and thrive— because, as Professor Long says the people must be fed, anji no single English county owns a sufficient number of cows to supply its own population with daiyy produce. New Zealand shops must be established, and will succeed equally well? Every argument tends to strengthen the case of direct sale to the consumer, as opposed to the present system; by means of which equally high prices will never bo obtained, on acpount of the more com. plicated process of sale, and the lobs attractive manner m which the butter is placed before the public.