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AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL ASSOCIATION.

SHEEP BREEDING. The usual monthly meeting of the Agricultural and Pastoral Association was held in the upper room of the Town Hall on Saturday evening, when a greater number of farmers were present than usually attend these meetings. The essayist for the evening was Mr. Donald Oliver, of Westerfield, and the subject of his paper was “ Sheep Breeding.” Mr. John Carter occupied the chair, and in introducing Mr. Oliver, remarked that the subject of the paper to be read was, to his mind, the most important one that had yet been dealt with at any of the meetings, as too much cropping had been done in the country hitherto, and too little attention paid to stock rearing. He did not know any gentleman in the district who was better qualified to speak on the subject of sheep breeding than was Mr. Oliver, and he (the Chairman) was sure they would enjoy a treat in listening to Mr. Oliver’s paper on SHEEP BREEDING. Mr. Oliver then read as follows : Mr. President and gentlemen,— I have with much pleasure complied with the request of your Secretary to prepare a paper on “ The Breeding of Sheep.” As I have been long associated

ill matters of this sort with some of the best breeders in the Southern Hemisphere, I trust this paper may be of some little service. In the premises, let it be understood that I am writing principally in the interests of breeders, who are to the dealers what the scientific gold miner is to the gold broker. By baying and selling, the broker will enrich himself, but will not add a single ounce of the precious metal to the currency of the country. In like manner, the sheep dealer may enrich himself without assisting in creating, or even keeping up, any single one of the qualities which make the animal he deals in so profitable to himself and so valuable to the human race generally. Being better acquainted with merinos than with any other variety of sheep, and believing them to be the most profitable animals at present in the world, I will confine myself almost exclusively to them. _ However, you all know that the principles of breeding apply to every variety of sheep alike, and so do all questions of a physiological nature. I very much regret that I cannot say much to benefit the general run of farmers—those who buy and sell as often as they can make a profit out of a flock of sheep. To them, there is something good in every variety, if they will only fatten readily, or give a fair return of lambs. To such farmers it must be a matter of perfect indifference whether the sheep they buy possess a fixity of type or belong to the greatest mongrels in the country. I will venture, however, to give one hint to those who intend going into sheep farming, and are anxious to start economically, yet would like to be: sure that the venture will end profitably to them. Buy old merino ewes. They are always cheap, and if they can be wintered on good English grass, they will do very well, even if they are what we call “gummies.” Put a pure Lincoln or Leicester ram to every seventy-five of them. Do not use mongrels. Pure rams can be got cheap enough—indeed, far too cheap at present to pay any breeder for the expense and trouble he must bestow on them. The progeny from this cross are most valuable sheep for the butcher, and their wool is alwaj’s exceptionally valuable. Mr. Carter, of Tinwald, sold this year in the London market a considerable quantity of wool taken from sheep of this description, and it f e ;ched Is. 4d. per lb., in the grease. The sheep from which this wool was taken were grazed all the year round on tussock country only. The good qualities of this cross, however, are not fixed, and no mortal can breed again from them in any known direction without changing the character of their get to something inferior to themselves. It is, therefore, better not to breed from them at all, but when they are old enough, sell and make up the flock again in the manner in which it was commenced. The materials for so doing will always be at hand. It will of course be conceded by everyone that there is a wide differencebetween indiscriminate, careless breeding, and skilful, careful breeding ; the former is the style followed by the multitude, and the latter is that which is, adopted by the enlightened few. Had our domesticated animals never been bred away from their original and normal condition by the intelligence of man, the terms “ selection,” “ breeding,” and “ classing ’’would, in the sensei am about to use them, be meaningless ; for Like , then, would invariably produce like. In proof of this, let anyone for a moment consider the matchless uniformity of individuals in any family of the wild denizens u f the earth, air, or water. This uniformity has obtained among them from the remotest ages, and will continue so while left in their natural state, unless some 'great geological disturbance upsets the present order of things. Such, howevex‘, will not be the cast with reclaimed animals that have come under the dominion of man. Their latent variability, which has been called into activity by man’s intelligence, will, if left to itself, have a continual tendency to carry them back to the point from which they started, but if this variability is wisely directed by judicious selection and periodical classing, the improvement and profit of the animal very soon becomes apparent, and in no animal does this change show itself sooner than in sheep. There seems as yet to be no known finality to this progress of improvement under proper management. Certain merino flocks in the Australian colonies are now as much superior to the Spanish sheep from which the}'’ originated as the latter were at one time superior to all other sheep in the world. I will not here enter into details as to how or by whom this beneficial change was first brought about. I will simply take those sheep -where they now stand, at the highest pinnacle of excellence to which any section of their species ever arrived. This superiority is now conceded to the Australian merino by both Americas, and also by several kingdoms on the Continent of Europe, as well as England. The French manufacturers would never be able to produce some of their best muslin delaines, and other delicate woollen fabrics were they not able to supply themselves in the London market with the long, elastic silky, wools from some of the well managed Australian stations. But this, improvement did not take place simply because those sheep were placed in the favored climate and pastures of Australia. In that country, as many ill-bred and neglected flocks can be seen as in any other portion of the world. It is, therefore, not to any inherent quality in sheep pastures or climate the world is indebted for the peerless sheep and wools produced in that country, but to the intelligence of a few breeders, who took advantage of the known tendency in animals under domestication to yield to modification, and their directing this modification to a profitable end by selection. Their energies were not so much directed to bring about radical changes in the form of the animal, as to make it produce more wool of a uniform character and better quality. The extent to which they have succeeded in their endeavor is now known to every sheep breeder of note, and manufacturer of fine wool in the world, besides giving the owners at least one-third better annual returns than those realised for the same outlay by their more careless neighbors. You are all familiar with the prices which the ordinary New Zealand wools fetch in the London market. Well, the price obtained for the common run of the Australian wools are no higher ; so I need not quote any of them, but to show what skilful management will do, I will quote prices obtained by a few of the best Victorian breeders for their last clip in London, and these prices are only what they are in the habit of geting every j'ear. For it must be understood that the best wools are always scarce, and not subject to the same fluctuations in price as the medium and indifferent sorts—

s. d. ' Sir Samuel Wilson (washed) 4 o]4 per lb. Thos. Dowling & Son ~ 3 » J. L. Cunie ~ 3 >, W. Gumming ~ 3 2 » T. Dowling & Son (greasy) 1 11K » A. Buchanan ~ I 10 14 ~ A. Anderson ~ 1 9'/i » T. Shaw „ J. Wilson ~ 18 ~ There is a prevailing belief that sheep purducing very valuable wool have less of it on them than those carrying wool of a commoner description. This belief, when it relates to the improved Australian merino, is utterly groundless, and it is also groundless (as several members of your society must know) when applied to the best English breeds in this country. Take a Leicester or Lincoln flock, and class out the fine, rich, glossy, well clad ones, and shear them against an equal number of coarse, fuzzy ones, and it will be found that the former cut by far the heavier fleeces, and the wool is more valuable per pound. In fact, it hag geveral qualities which

the other description of wool from the same flock has not, one of which is that it is specifically heavier. Thus, even in the best English breeds, the necessity exists for careful annual classing by every one who wishes to keep pace with the progress of the times. The fact seems to be lost sight of in these colonies that the wool from a sheep before he is sold for mutton, represents at least three times as much money as the mutton will fetch when a flock is sold to the butcher. This being the case, it becomes obvious that three times more attention should be paid to the wool than the mutton. Almost any mongrel sheep will produce as good mutton as the very purest bred ones, but how would we get even fair mongrels if no one attended to breeding ? It is the near relationship.mongrels have to pure sheep that give them the qualities we desire in them ; but, let them interbreed for any considerable length of time among themselves, and they become comparatively worthless. The fact is, that if breeders were extinguished altogether, and the breeding of sheep left to dealers and chance for, say a hundred years, it would not require the imagination of a Darwin to predict the lean, half hairy, party colored animals they would become, by the end of that time. Almost e fery one in possession of sheep believes he understands breeding, and is often strongly prejudiced against any method that does not agree with his own. I say he has a perfect right to be so, and to do absolutely what he sees fit with his own. I am writing with the hope of assisting those who admit —at least to themselves — that their sheep and wools are inferior to what they might be, and are anxious to improve them. Every breeder of sheep must either buy his rams or breed them. In most cases it will be more convenient to buy than breed ; but he who buys, must at all times be content with rams of less value than he who breeds them ; because every , man competent to direct breeding, is also competent to select the best for himself, and will assuredly do so. At the same time, it.is safer to buy second rate rams from a well managed flock that has acquired a fixity of type by being bred from sheep of a uniform character, in the same direction, for some time, than it woulibe to get the first pick out of a flock that had been unskilfully managed, and possessed no fixity of type at all. The first thing to bo done by any one desirous to breed his own rams, is to select ewes for the purpose. This is where he will experience the greatest difficulty, and unless he has a special aptitude for this kind of work, coupled with a large amount of experience among sheep, he will at first make a good many blunders. I will here endeavor to specify what a merino ewe should be. The face should be covered with a peculiar velvety, semi-transparent, kind of hair. This hair, when examined through a microscope of low power, should appear the color of pure water tinged with sherry. Hairs from the face of coarse-woolled breeds, under the same power, resemble milk. There should be no wool about the nose, nor near enough the eyes to obstruct the sight. But she should have fair, long wool on the forehead and on the cheeks. Viewed from behind, she should, in full wool, have a very thick neck, a wide chest, and be particularly wide at the hips. The surface of the wool should be as nearly level as possible—not pointed, like hoggets’ wool. Each natural division or lock will, however, be more or less pointed on the top, but the nearer the top of the lock approaches the level the better, if other things are equal, such as length, fineness, and density. This lock should on no part of the body of. a firstclass merino be less than a quarter, or more than half-an-inch in diameter. When smaller, as a rule, it indicates lightness of fleece; and when largercoarse, harsh wmol. Thin, pointed wool, or staple resembling belly wool, on the top of the shoulder, is objectionable. The good body wool should extend quite down to the belly on the sides, and right down to the knees and hocks on the legs. _ Wool on the hind legs below the hocks is a good feature. Coarse wool, resembling hair, on the hips, or any part of the body, is very objectionable. This does not, however, apply to the hairs often seen on ranis’ heads, the consequence of having the skin abraded with fighting, nor to hairs growing on the tail where it has been cut. The reason why hairs grow on those parts after they have been disturbed in the manner stated, would require a more learned physiologist than myself to explain. What I want to show is that in such cases they are not objectionable. Reject all wrinkles. Randal very justly characterises them as an unmitigated nuisance. The outside of the thighs should be full, presenting a convex appearance. Sheep whose form has been neglected have flat, straight-up-arid-down thighs, or whac is worse, thighs concave from the outside. Some writer on sheep has said that the body of the animal should resemble a barrel set .on wooden pegs.. I have seen some odd samples approaching this build, and would advise every sensible man to discard them at once, and also several breeders’ maxims which would appear now to require modification. For example, it was at one time considered that the more yolk wool had in it the finer it was, this notion is completely exploded. Good wmol certainly has a large quantity of yolk in it, but the most a well-bred sheep should show on the tips of the wool is a sprinkling of black dots—never completely pitched over with it.' Randal illustrates this by quoting a high bred ram’s fleece —according to Yankee notions —which weighed in the grease 19 J lbs., but when properly cleansed weighed only 4lbs. Buyers in London neglect wool with much black tip on it, and the brokers advise us : to send it Home in bales by itself. It has also been asserted that the smaller the lock the finer the staple. This, as a rule, is true ; but it is also true that in any breed of sheep the lock, by breeding, may be made so fine that it would be utter folly to cultivate it because it would not be the best kind of wool wdien grown, and the fleece would become so light that it would not pay. The term “spiral,” when applied to the convolutions of the fibre of wool, is also misleading. Good wool never is Spiral !ike a corkscrew ; it is simply curved, and the more curves it has in the space of an inch the finer it is, and the more valuable it is as a clothing, but not as a combing wool. The general belief that like produces like, leads many a stock owner astray. He does not consider that each of the sheep he intends to couple together are made up of parts, and strains of blood, descended to them from numerous ancestors ; and that it is quite as likely the progeny may resemble one of its progenitors as its immediate parents. This disposition in ■ sheep to breed back (as it is called), is known to and acted upon, by every one who understands his business as a breeder. Hence his desire to get rams from a long established and well managed flock, knowing that the longer they have been bred in one direction, and persistently kept to the desired type, the more certain they are to reproduce themselves in their offspring, because the strains of blood of ancestors equal in quality, and of the same type as themselves, have descended to them through several generations, so that, if they do breed back, unless they go very far back, they are hound to be good, because all their ancestors for many generations were good. But if you want to dissimilarise the form of your sheep and the character of your wool use rams of no fixed type, from the flocks of say A B and 0, alternately ; and should you live to the age of Methuaaleh you will never have a uniform flock of sheep, nor a uniform clip of wool. But if the flocks of A, B, and C are similar in . form and character of wool, and have

been bred nearly to the same type, with an equal amount of intelligence, through the same number of generations, then using rams from them alternately will not injuriously affect the character of your flock. However, this is not the shortest road to uniformity and perfection. The shortest road is first to fix on a flock declared to be of the highest quality by breeders and manufacturers —and colonial stock-owners would be wise to pay particular attention to the voice of the latter.

Out of this flock buy a ram for your stud ewes, and use him among them until he becomes too old for service ; then get another from the same breeder’, use him in like manner, and whilst the flock out of which you have bought continues to be skilfully managed, never change. Cast, aside all notions of the balefulneas of in- - and-iu breeding, as -you would a ghost story. The healthiest and most beautifully formed animals. on earth have been bred in - and -in for ages, and if in - and -in breeding were.; likely to result in the destruction of a species the All-wise Creator would have so constituted their natures thak it would be as impossible for interbreeding within restricted limits to take place among them as it is now between widely dissimilar species. Any flock of pure merino ewes that have never • had other than merino rams among them may be used to start a stud flock from; but oh looking through them it will be observed that various types of form and wool present themselves. It then becomes a question which is the right type: to pick out for stud purposes. I say stud purposes, because without a stud flock the breeding arch would bo without the only thing that can hold, it together —the keystone, I have already ~ described what a merino ewe should be and I will only say now that in choosing her it should be apparent that, with all her other qualities, she will clip a heavy fleece; arid so long as she is a perfectly pure merino, it is not a serious objection should her wool be rather stout in fibre if she has plenty of it, and is put —asshe oughtto be—to a ram possessing the requisite hereditary qualifications, because the prepotency of his blood will at once have the effect of giving an improved fineness to the wool of his offspring. Very fine wool is ~ at present most valuable per lb., but wool . of medium fineness, combining the qualities, of length, strength, soundness, evenness, and elasticity, with a dazzling brilliancy of-fibre when scoured, is what pays best per sheep. It starting a studflock keep in view the fact that the rain constitutes the half of it, and should always be greatly superior to the ewe in the qualities you desire to see in the offspring. The ram has a prepotent power over that of the ewe in stamping his characteristics on the offspring, and no matter how good your ewes are, if you use indifferent rams, you will, in a few generations, scatter their good qualities to the four winds of heaven. If you want to succeed as a breeder have always the best rams that can be got and you will ; do wonders, even should you neglect the classing of your ewes altogether. But reverse this order of things, and the engine you expected to go forward/will most assuredly 20 back. In choosing a ram for stud purposes, get him with an undoubted pedigree, or, in other words, a long descent from good ancestors ; but however long this descent may have been in a pure channel, the tendency to revert back, though weakened, has not been destroyed, and consequently very indifferent animals will appear occasionally when least expected. So it would be unwise to con-. sider any ram first-class, whatever hia descent, unless he the requisite individual excellencies himself. As rams from different flocks are slightly different in character and appearance, yet of equal intrinsic value, I will here enter ~ upon no description of what a ram should be, further than that he should bo large, broad-set, and densely covered with long, fine wool. Some writers say that, a merino ram should have a perfectly straight back. Don’t believe, any such nonsense. It .would show as little judgment to look for a straight, level back on the statue of Apollo as on a merino ram. The accompanying woodcut, taken from the Australasian, is that of the famous ram Sir Thomas, the property of Messrs; Gumming, of Darlington, Victoria. -He. was purchased by them four years ago, . for the sum of L 714, and, taking into ac ? count what, in several ways, he realised for his original owner, Mr. James Gibson, of Tasmania, and subsequently for the Messrs. Gumming, he exceeds in value any ram that has ever been bred in this hemisphere, or, indeed, in any other part of the world. As it may be interesting to ; some of the members of your society and others to have a look at the portrait of this peerless ram, I have had it framed, and do present it to your society for general information. Mr. Lewis, in opening discussion, said, in reference to Mr. Oliver’s remarks as to" the yolk in wool, that lie (Mr. Lewis) had ; always thought a great quantity of yolk a good feature in fine wool. Mr. Oliver said that he only objected to an ovor-abundance of yolk. He knew an instance in which wool that weighed 191bs in the grease only gave 41bs when washed. The London market would not buy dirt, and it was no use sending dirt Home, for by the time all charges wore paid great havoc would have been played with the 4lbs of wool. Yolk was not a bit of good. Mr. Oliver also, in reply to a rerivark by the Chairman, said he wished the questions to be confined to such as- ■ arose out of the paper, as he was not prepared to answer every question that might be put to him outside the subject he .had written on. He knew a number of young men who were able to write excellent ■ papers, but who did not care to be 5 pulled about in the after debate. They would far rather write the paper and defend it through the press. Mr. James Brown (Wakanui) differed from Mr. Oliver as to the value of the carcase. He (Mr. Brown) could only get half for the wool that he obtained for the mutton, and thought the best mutton growing sheep were the best for the , farmers. In making a reference to what: had been done for Leicesters, Mr. Brown , said he thought farmers ought, to get riierino ewes and cross them with long-: , woolled rams.

Mr. Oliver thought sheep should be three years old before they were 'sold for? mutton, thus giving three fleeces of wool; : In regard to the value of' Leicesters as compared with merinos, as mentioned by - Mr. Brown, Mr. Oliver said he had never, heard of a Leicester bringing the money that the subject of the engraving he had . shown them had done. The owner of that ram had lately refused L 1,500 for a relation of the same animal, and the same man got 3s. 2d. for his wool and 2s. for his pieces. He could not then give the price obtained for fleeces from this flock,, but would write to the Australasian for the weight and price, and failing that ■- source, to the producers themselves, with whom he was well acquainted. Mr. Brown thought it was mora profitable to keep a sheep for one year and sell it for mutton at the end of that time, after one clip. Long-woolled sheep, taken, fleece for fleece were more profitable than’ •- merinos, and best he thought for the general run of farmers. Mr. Oliver said they were drifting away from the subject oh which he had written. He had dealt with sheep breeding—not sheep farming. Another time, if they wished, he would write on sheep farming, and deal with what was most profitable for the general run of farmers, but that night the subject of his paper was Ho was quite prepared to allow that longwoolled sheep were perhaps the best for the farmer, but not long-woolled mongrels.; Mr. Lewis mentioned a case in which a farmer had bought aflock of gummy ewes

for a small figure. They were in lamb to first class Leicester rams, and got more for their fleeces alone than he had paid for the flock at first. He thought there was a better return to be had from sheep than could be obtained from horses. Mr. Boyle questioned the position Mr. Oliver had taken in regard to in and-in breeding. Mr. Oliver said all the famous breeders were in-and-in breeders, and the example was set by the Creator. All the wild animals bred in-and-in, and everything that was left to nature followed this rule. Thei "result was that a remarkable uniformity of typo had obtained for thousands of years amongst all the wild animals. Mr. Brown had read a few authorities on the subject, but never heard any one say that breeding in-and-in without change was beneficial. To _ a certain extent the wild animals bred in-and-in, but they were not entirely without change. If this kind of breeding were followed persistently without change, most species would suffer. Mr. Brown gave instances. Sheep perhaps had a constitution that would stand it better. Breeders, he knew, did not object to a good animal because it was close bred, but as soon as danger threatened from close breeding, they changed the paternity and imported new blood.

Mr. Oliver said Randall, of New York, Ellman, Bakewell, and Latham were all in-and-in breeders in sheep. In cattle, Ceilings, Mason, Bates, Booth, and Price advocated in-and-in breeding. Mr. Hammond,’‘of the United States of America, bred merino sheep in-and-in for sixty years, and they increased in wool, size, bone, and spread of rib—indeed in all which indicate improved constitution. Mr. Sargent said the main point for the farmer to study was what would pay best. Mr. Oliver had to wait three years before he got mutton. He (Mr. Sargent) had third and fourth crosses from merino ewes. He killed them in their first year, and had his return while Mr. Oliver waited three years for his. In regard to in-and-in breeding, no man ought to go in for high breeding at all unless he knew it thoroughly. Mr. Oliver again said he had not dealt with sheep-farming to profit—but with breeding. The Chairman instanced Mr. Moore, of Glen mark, who never used any but his own rams, and must have bred in-and-in ; and Mr. Booth for thirty years had always used his own bulls. He (the chairman) did not particularly favor in-and-in breeding, though he practised it himself to some extent—but they ought to be judicious with their crosses. He .would not advocate breeding long-wools, and placing them on tussocks. He had been Home recently, and in Bradford the people had approved of our colonial wools —it had much more brightness and lustre than any other. But they said we were great rogues, and sent them lots of stones and flax amongst our wool —they had somehow got to know even what we called flax in this colony. They said if we kept on breeding for the same kind of wool we would get a better market and be more thought of. We ought to get good wool—merino or whatever breed we adopted. He would ask Mr. Oliver if he favored a Lincoln or a Leicester ewe as the best cross with a merino ram 1

Mr. Oliver would sooner put a good Leicester ewe to a merino than any. He preferred the Leicester for the smallness of its head, and a lamb to a Leicester because of its small head gave easier parturition, and less chance of loss in lambing. The Chairman said Leicesters could be got away in 2-tooth, which was an advantage, and in his own experience they were the best cross for merinos. Mr. Oliver said a first cross between a Leicester ewe and a merino ram would exist anywhere on ordinary feed, but a cross from Sethis again was not to be desired.

Mr. Silcock said that every critic of Mr. Oliver had started off that night with a disbelief in something he had advanced. Mr. Silcock would only be following the crowd if he did the same. He thought it was a mistake to believe that a good second cross could not be got from a first. He had some experience while managing his father’s sheep at home. They used the best rams in succession, but never the same breed twt years in succession. The sheep had a mixed look no doubt, but he never knew his father to gel less than Is 7d for his wool. Lambs dropped in August he had known weigh 701bs. when killed at Christmas, and had killed twotooths weighing 1401bs. In reply to Mr. Brown, Mr. Oliver said he would* rnn ewes with rams in this country from the Ist of May to the Gth of June.

Mr. Lewis, referring to the Chairman’s remarks about Mr. Moore, of Glenmark’s, flocks being bred in-and-in for generations from the same rams, asked if this fact had anything to do with the scab that was . found in that flock at one time. (Laughter.) Mr. Oliver was quite right when he said that the best breeders bred in-and-in, but he said nothing of the many inferior culls that were bred from the same rams. He had no doubt there were many of the great ram’s offspring that were not worth 7s. But to get good rams in-and-in breeding had to be practised. Mr. Oliver was quite right when he said that more atten- ' tion should be paid to wool than to mutton. When he came to the colony first he had had the best sheep for the colony pointed out to him, and though he was astonished at the time, he soon discovered that his English notions were n a strange soil, and that the selection hewo uld have made guided by them would not have been the best.

Mr. Oliver'said culls had {to be made, and it it was only by continually culling out the bad ones that a really good sheep could bo got, and if this were done a fixity of type would result in spite one’s self. Every breeder culled out his bad sheep and kept the good ones. The Chairman defended -Mr, Moore against Mr. Lewis’ chaff as to scab, and said that he (the Chairman) had been twenty years in the colony and had not seen a scabby sheep yet. Mr. Moore’s flock was the best in Canterbury. A short discussion here followed on scab, which Mr. Lewis explained was not constitutional, and was only communicated by infection.

Mr. Oliver, in reply to Mr. Silcock, explained what fixity of type was. By breeding in one direction for a series of years it was aimed, as far as possible, to secure the same kind of animal being thrown by the ewe to an almost certainty. Mongrels having a dozen different strains of blood in them would always tend to throw something different from the direct parent, no matter what ram was used. The Chairman said he he had got a dozen sheep out from Home to begin with. He had stuck to them, using always his own rams. The breeding had been close, but he had retained the type. He was sure the district could not go on grooving oats for ever. It must go back to sheep, and it would be well to see how best to suit them to the land and not put Leicesters where Lincolns ought to be, nor either where they should put merinos. He begged to move a vote of thanks to Mr. Oliver for the paper he had read, and in closing the meeting he desired to state that it would be the last paper of the season, but the New Year would be begun with another paper. Mir. Oliver acknowledged the compliment, but was not sure that he could consent to a request made by Mr. Silcock to read the next paper on sheep-farming. He did not care to read two papers in succession. r He might take the second. Mr. John’brr, in moving a vote of thanks to the Chairman, said he had learned more about sheep that night than he had ever known before, and he could easily see that

the best breeder would be the man wh° used the best judgment, and to be a successful breeder it wanted a great deal of careful judgment. The vote having been passed, the meeting separated.

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AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL ASSOCIATION., Ashburton Guardian, Volume 2, Issue 164, 12 October 1880

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AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL ASSOCIATION. Ashburton Guardian, Volume 2, Issue 164, 12 October 1880

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