The Dairy. AN AMERICAN DAIRY FARM.
The farm of the Hon. Lewis F. Allen, on Grand Island, under the management of his son, Mr Cleveland W. Allen, is something over 500 acres. It is mostly a rich clay'loam, of generous depth and easily worked. The old pastures contain a great variety of grasses well adapted to dairy grazing and the production of an excellent quality of milk.
The general plan of this dairy, however, not to depend wholly upon pastures in summer, but to raise a variety of green crops upon which to full feed the cows in a dry time or when the pasture becomes deficient in quality or quantity. It >s intended that every cow shall have an opportunity to do her best. She_ is only relied upon to convert food into milk, and is not expected to work any miracle in the production of milk from pedigree or breed, although the breed is particularly considered, as having the capacity and habit of producing the largest quantity and best quality of milk from a given amount of food. Full rations are to be provided at all seasons, and in as succulent a state as the season will permit. Clover, fodder corn, millet, Hungarian grass, oats, oats and peas—all fed green in their seasonwill furnish the extra food for milk. The dairy being kept for the production of butter, the herd is selected with that end in view. The elder Mr Allen, as is well known, regards the Shorthorn as admirable for the production of milk as well as beef, and thinks for quantity the milking strain of Shorthorn is not surpassed by any~breed ; but for richness and color of cream he is favorably inclined to the Guernsey. It is proposed, therefore, in this dairy to graft the Guernsey upon grade Shorthorns. Selected common cows are croaned with a Shorthorn male from a milking! family, and the heifers from this
Shorthorn are again selected and crossed with the Guernsey male. Only selected animals are bred, A calf with poor appetite and digestion is discarded, whatever the blood, for to eat and digest is the foundation of milk production. The system ot selection and breeding is expected to produce liberal milkers with high-colored and flavored cream. The Shorthorn often produces a richly colored cream, and Guernsey cream, is somewhat higher colored Jersey, So this double cross may be relied upon for quality and color to suit the most fastidious taste. The herd now numbers about forty head, but is to be increased to eighty.
The most important matter of temperature in the handling of milk must be regulated in a dairy house. This should not. be subject to atmospheric changes, bnt have a comparatively even temperature. The Messrs Allen have given much attention to this feature of dairy management. Their dairy honse is built of stone, with double walls, the outside being 16 inches, and inside 10 inches, laid in mortar, having an sir space of 6 inches between them. The roof is double, so as to prevent any heat from penetrating through it. The windows are upon the north side, with blinds. The height of the story is 10 feet, and the floor is of solid concrete, worked down very smoothly, and as easily cleaned as a floor of polished marble. The main dairy room is 14 by 18 feet, for setting the milk in four long pans. The milk may be further refrigerated by icewater in a channel surrounding the_ milk. The rest of the dairy house is occupied by a churning room and store room. There is a small wooden building adjoining the churning room ; in this is the wash room, with a large, deep slate sink, in which all the dairy utensile are washed. Here is also a 3-horse engine, with a 5-horse tubular boiler, which gets up steam very quickly, runs the churn, and furnishes hot water and steam for all purposes of cleansing. This little engine reduces the labor so materially that a slender girl is able to do all the labor about the dairy house and the entire manufacturing of the butter. She is, of couse, a dairy expert. The engine pumps the water for the boiler, and for all other purposes. The temperature of the dairy room stands at 80 deg. to 65 deg. in the hottest weather.
The milk is set at a temperature of 55 deg. or 60 deg., the pans being so large that the present quantity of milk does not fill them more than 6 to 7 inches deep, and the temperature is not reduced so low as would be required for deeper setting. A barrel churn is used, which is easily managed with the engine. The butter is washed in the granular state before gathering, is worked with an ordinary lever worker upon a marble slab—the salt worked in when taken from the churn ; it is then allowed to stand for a few hours, when it is re-worked and put up in pound prints, wrapped in muslin, and placed in. drawers, each containing fifteen prints. Four of these drawers are placed in a case and sent to the dealer, who sells to hia customers.
With all these facilities, and a careful handling of the milk, the product might be expected to reach, as it does, a high, degree of excellence. It was placed upon the market at Buffalo, at the lowest point of last summer’s low prices, and sold readily at 10 cents above the market for first quality pail butter. It has kept abovfl that figure above the market since. This dairy is to produce butter winter and summer, half the herd coming in at each, season. There are many such private dairies, and it is encouraging that nearly all of them are eminently successful in getting remunerative price* It shows that only skill may win.—E. W. S., in Country Gentleman.
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