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AMERICA., Ashburton Guardian, Volume 1, Issue 105, 27 May 1880, Supplement
PRODUCTION’ OF WHEAT. The United States at present produces about one-fourth the wheat grown in the world. Her yield for 1879 is about 56.000. qr. ’ According to the official statistics, her wheat area is upwards of 32.000. acres, or ten times that of the British Islands. The area of the crop of 1878 was 25 per cent, greater than that of 1877, whilst during 1879 a further increase was made of fully 3 per cent. —an increment of 28 per cent, under two years. This rapid augmentation testifies how readily and quickly the supplies in America respond to the demand. liven with this large accession, the wheat area of the States is only equivalent to the dimension of the single State of Alabama, or is only l-44th of the total area of the United States. This abundance of land still uncultivated —much of it available for wheat growing—distributed throughout the vast Western continent, is obviously a most important factor in the continuous permanent supply of cheap wheat. The fresh, unfilled, virgin soils can be bought at small prices from the State or territory, from railway companies, or from private speculators, who have in some regions taken up large tracts. In tolerably accessible situations, 5 or 6_ miles from a railway, such lands, well suited for wheat, can be purchased at 20s to 25s an acre, or at less than the price at which similar land could be rented in England for one year. In many localities they can be rented on very moderate terms, or worked in shares, the landlord providing house buildings, occasionally also furnishing seed, and receiving as rent one-half of the grain crops, •which occupy, perhaps, half the holding, whilst, with the other half of the grain, the tenant takes all profit on live stock kept, and on clover, roots, fruit, or vegetables. Throughout the western praires of Minnesota, Dakota, or lowa, it does not cost much to bring the land into cultivation. The sod of ages, full of rich organic matter, the debris of thousands of crops of strong grass, rotted down or burnt by the fires which almost every year sweep these wide prairies, is ploughed up during summer, lies a few months, sometimes carries a catch crop, has another ploughing in autumn, and is ready for the crop in the succeeding spring. No expensive, tedious preparation intervenes between the acquisition of the land and the reaping of a crop of wheat. Within twelve months, at very moderate cost, the new lands can he made to yield a full return of breadstuffs. Diversity of climate and circumstance, as well as the great extended area, deserve consideration as important elements in securing a tolerably riegular average of production. On our own tight little island, notwithstanding diversities of clay, loam, and chalk, of hill and dale, of high farming and of reprehensible late and slovenly management, a dripping season, a stormy blooming time, or a wet harvest, greatly affects our total wheat yield. But the extent and diversity of conditions throughout the great American continent minimise such contingencies. Xn the eastern and middle States winter wheat is. mostly grown; in the western States spring
wheat is almost universal. In California wheat is reaped in June. In Manitoba and some parts of Canada, 2000 miles distant, it is not ready until August. Under such widelv diverse conditions it is not likely that'’blight, wet, or drought, can operate universally. The season, unfavorable in one locality, will probably suit another. Although California last year was 6,000,000 bush, under an average, and other important wheat-growing States of Kansas and Texas were very deficient, this was counterbalanced by the extraordinary yield of the winter wheat States, and the general total was the biggest crop ever grown in America. Practical men properly inquire how long do these fresh virgin soils continue profitably to yield wheat ? The application of farmyard or other manures, be it observed, is quite exceptional. _ Throughout the wide wheat-growing regions the great bulk of the straw is ruthlessly burned. Without any restitution of the elements of fertility annually removed, after eight, ten, or perhaps fifteen years’ continuous wheat growing, the best of soils necessarily becomes impoverished. I have been shown in various parts of Minnesota, land which has borne satisfactorily, without manure, twenty consecutive crops of wheat. But where everything is taken out and nothing put back, exhaustion must ensue sooner or later. Such exhaustion has years ago been induced in many ot the older eastern, and even throughout some of the middle states.
The yield throughout the United States averages about one-half of what we were wont'to consider our British average of 28 bush. It oscillates between 13 and 14 bush. The expenses of cultivation in the States are much less than they are at home. In most western localities they do not exceed 40s an acre ; whilst our wheat crop, as you are aware, cannot he grown for less than LB. This low cost of production is much in favor of American competition.
Some further details and particulars of American wheat farming may be interesting. In many of the older eastern States, the management is not very different from that at home. Rotations are pursued, stock kept, manure made and carted out into the fields, but this materially enhances the cost of the crops, and, with the higher rent or value of the eastern lands, places the cultivator at a disadvantage as compared with the western cultivator. But steadily migration carries wheat-growing into the cheaper west. It travels withthe sun, at the rate of one degree in eight years. Making three great divisions of the Continent —in the first zone including the Atlantic States, _ with Pennsylvania and west Virginia ; in the second zone comprising all the central States to the Mississippi; and in the western all beyond it appears from the statistics of Mr Charles Washington, the statistician of the Board of Agriculture at Washington, that this great western zone produces fully 37 per cent, of the wheat grown, and is annually increasing; the central belt contributes 49 per cent., but is diminishing ; whilst still more marked diminution occurs in the proportion produced by the eastern belt, which, twenty years ago, supplied 30 per cent., and now yields only 14 percent, of the total.
In the Western States, throughout California, and even in many of the central States, wheat is grown tolerably continuously ; on the deep loam of the prairies or rich alluvium of the plains and valleys no manure is applied, and for the present, at any rate, none is required. Land has repeatedly been pointed out to me in the good, fertile State of Minnesota on which wheat has been grown for twenty years •onsecutively, the whole of the straw being consumed were it was threshed, not by stock but by fire, and the crops as yet showing no deterioration; 40s to 50s, which the British farmer directly or indirectly expends on manure for his wheat crop, his American competitor saves. Other expenses are also low. Ploughing does not cost nearly so much as in this country. The easy-working land, usually without stones, ploughed, as it is, lightly with a furrow 12 to 15 inches wide and 4 to 6 inches deep, is turned over by a pair of horses at a cost of 6s an acre. The teams make long days, seldom working less than ten hours; they overtake fully two acres a day. Although the men s wages are 25 per cent, dearer, costing about 4s per dav, the horses are bought for onehalf the price they would cost at home, and their food is less than half the value of the corn and fodder consumed by an English farm-horse. Instead of 2 to 2i bush., the general wheat seeding at home, half that quantity is deposed, usually with a broadcaster, which distributes eight or twelve rows, and overtakes 8 or 12 acres daily. No hoeing or weeding are requisite; the severe winter weather and hot summer are unfavorable tor the growth of weeds. Throughout many parts of Minnesota and other well-farmed districts the land was cleaner than at home. Although wages are doubled for harvest, the work is cheaply and expediously overtaken. Hindering wet is almost unknown. Machinery ha*
long been largely and universally used. In California large machines, drawn by four horses, pass over the fields, cut the ears from the stalks, and carry them direct to the thresher. Mors frequently automate self-binders are in use, cutting down 20 acres daily. The cord-binder is destined to supersede the wire-binder. On several large, well-managed farms which I visited in Minnesota the cord-binder has last year been used most successfully, effecting a saving as compared with the wire, obviating the damage done to the threshing drum by the metal, and removing the risk of the animal eating the wire with their fodder. To save time and trouble in stacking, some farmers thresh the dry stuff from the shocks. Mr Dalrymple, on his 75,000-acre farm in Dakota Territory, never puts up a wheat rick. With 120 self-binders and about 500 people his harvesting is finished in twelve to fifteen days, at a cost of about 10s per acre. Undisturbed by rain or storm, with twenty sets of tackle, the threshers, including a winnower and straw-elevator, and draw by 10 or 12-horse portable engines, the newer ones burning straw, the whole of the grain is threshed out in the field. This rather risky and expensive mode of proceeding somewhat retards ploughing, which, in such a country, must all be accomplished by early in November, when frost may be expected to arrest all field operations for about four months. Tabulating these expenses of American wheat growing, the cost of an acre may be set fourth as follows :
Rent or interest on capital, £3 at 10 per cent. 6s Taxes and rates Ploughing x 9 Seed Sowing and harrowing .. .. Reaping and stacking .. .. • • - • Ijj 9 Delivery • • • • |* Incidentals .. •• •• *• •• •• o 3
40s. In some localities more capital may be embarked in the farm. On many nicelymanaged small farm, the valuation of the land, house, buildings, and permanent improvements, with the machinery and implements, amount to L 8 and even to LlO an acre. This amount of capital is not uncommon on farms in the older middle or eastern States, and, of coarse, proportionately increases the cost of wheat growing. Forty shillings is, however, a fair estimate for the expenses of an acre of vs heat in those great regions where more than half the crop is grown. Mr Dalrymple savs that on his great Red River Farm his’expenses do not exceed 365. For that sum in many other parts of Dakota, in Minnesota, and lowa, small farmers undertake the whole of the necessary operations, beginning with the ploughing and finishing off with the delivery of the threshed grain to the railroad station four or five miles distant. In determining the cost of producing the American yheat crops there not much difficulty ; the yield and the price at which the crop'is disposed of are, however, liable to considerable variation. Last K’s crop in Texas averaged only 7h . ; the yield for Kansas wes only 11 bush. ; Missouri and Ohio made, however, nearly 20 hush. # and Illinois 18. The average acreable yield of the whole United States is about 13£. If the acre of wheat is grown, as has been shown, at 40s, and 13i bush, is the average produce, the cost per bush, must be 3s Id, or 24s 8d per qr. —a small price for wheat delivered at a railway station. Instead of 3s Id per bush, as the cost price of production, American farmers generally for several years past have been getting 4s per bush. This affords an acreable return of 545. Deductin" the 40s of expenses of production there accrues a profit of 14s an acre, or about one-half the value of the laud on which the crop has grown. In connection with American competition an important question arises what proportion of her abundant and cheap growth of wheat can she afford to dispose ot ? Previous to 1830 the United States exported annually wheat to the value of about L 1,500,000 sterling. Notwithstanding her steady rapid increase of population, which now exceeds 40,000,0000, she has during last few years spared about 20,000,000 qr., nearly one-half of which has been entered for the United Kingdom.
A roost important element in the question ol American competition obviously is the distance from market, from railroad, and Irom the Atlantic seaboard. The bountiful and choice crops of remote localities are of little benefit, either for producer or consumer, without facilities for their transport. It is not many years since Indian corn in the cob was frequently used for fuel, whilst fat bacon was a cheap and handy means of lighting the fires on the Mississippi and Missouri boats, and getting up extra steam for a racing spurt. Splendid peaches, for want of handy carriage, are given to pigs and cattle. Hay, In remote districts worth 6s per ton, is used for driving flour and threshing mills. In Manitoba, in the Red River country, and in various parts of Dakota, I have seen teams of horses, mules, and oxen laboriously bringing wheat 50, 60,, and even 7.0 miles to market. Were that
the usual mode of transport, American produce would not be either so abundant or so cheap as it is in England. But there are markets and markets. An American trade list for January I gives the following very diverse prices for the same No. 2 red wheat, sold at the following places:—New York, 1.56 dol. ; Chicago, 1.31 dpi. ; Sfe. Paul, 1.21 dol. ; Duluth, 1.18 dol. j Winnipeg, 83 c.; Emerson and Portage la Parle, about 70 c. Neither of these lastmentioned Canadian market places yet enjoy railway advantages. The great and growing railway system of the States largely contributes to their power of economically sending us every second loaf we eat, and supplementing it with a rasher of bacon and an occasional beefsteak. She has 100,000 miles of railways, is adding annually some 5000 miles, and manages in her western domains, over level plains and prairies, to make single lines for less than L3OOO per mile. The long-distance rates of the United States are not so high as those of Europe. Ocean rates during several years have been equally moderate. From New York to British ports a barrel of flour, weighing 214 lb, was conveyed per steamer for an average of 3s, and per sailing vessel for 2s 3d. Wheat in bags has been carried as low as 8d per cental; the average would little exceed Is. From Philadelphia wheat has been carried to the United Kingdom ports as low as 5s a quarter. From Montreal a quarter (480 lb) of grain is forwarded at 4s to 9s. Provisions from most of the Atlantic ports are landed in Great Britain at 30s to 40s per ton ; whilst oil cakes are quoted at the moderate figure of 20s to 30s. Beef, by steamer, has averaged 6s a tieree, but less is paid by sailing vessels. Through rates to Europe from points remote from the seaboard are proportionately lower. From Minneapolis, 1200 miles west of the Atlantic, a barrel of flour is conveyed to Liverpool, Cardiff, and Glasgow for 7s. From St. Louis, by direct water route, flour has been forwarded at 5s per barrel. With such temptingly low rates, no wonder that American flour is imported jn increasingly large quantities, showing in 1879 an excess of 37 per cent, on the imports of former years, and that_ English millers are anxiously inquiring into and adopting many of the more recent improvements of the best American mills. From the English farmers’ standpoint it may, in conclusion, be stated that wheat can be grown in most parts of America at a cost of 25s per qr., can be forwarded on. through bills of lading 1500 miles by railroad, lake, or canal, and 3000 miles across the ocean to Liverpool or other United Kingdom ports, for the moderate cost of 15s; for 2s landing, dock insurance, and commission charges are discharged, making a total of 42a per qr. These figures afford a profit to farmer, carrier, and shipper. When the sun shines in England, and a good crop of wheat is properly matured, the farmer expects to make for his fuller-berried wheat about 2s per qr. more than can be got for the thinner ordinary No, 2 American. With the risks of indifferent seasons there can be only slender and precarious profit in growing wheat in this country at 44s or 455, What can be substituted for it on poor clays and thin weak soils, which produce at best about 3 qr an acre, comes not within my subject. With better prospects, it will continue to be grown on soil where 4 qr. can generally be counted on, where no restriction is laid on the sale of the straw, and where, in addition to the grain, the straw will realise L 4 or L 5 an acre. It is only under such favorable circumstances that British farmers can depend upon profitably producing wheat at 45s par qr., which, with extending cultivation throughout the world and tolerably good crops, will probably he its average value for years to come. PRODUCTION OP MEAT. The meat production of America is fully as interesting and important as her wheat production. It has grown almost within the last twenty years, it is rapidly extending, and for years to come is capable of almost indefinite extension. Tee milk cows of the United States number 12,000,000, the oxen and other cattle number 21,500,000, and are increasing at the rate of about 1,000,000 annually. One-third of the cattle stock slaughtered every year, presuming that they averaged about 700 lb carcase weight, would provide every inhabitant of the States with riearly f lb daily of beef! But the great breeding and grazing regions of America, where the herds and flocks are so rapidly increasing, and where there is still so much room for increase, are upwards of 1000 miles west of the Atlantic ; 150 miles west of Omaha on the Union Pacific, where seven railroads converge, the great cattle ranches begin, and extend 500 miles through Nebraska and Wyoming over the Laramie to the Rocky Mountains, and still 1000 miles west through Utah and Oregon to the Pacific. Southwards the stock raising ia being prosecuted for nearly 1000 miles through Colorado and Texas to the Gulf of Mexico, and north fully 800 miles through the rich, unoccupied plains and
valleys of Wyoming and Montana to the international bonndarj', and far beyond it into the Canadian Dominion.
In these Western States and Territories thousands of cattle are raised on good grazings, for which not a cent is paid. The only outly under this category is an annual Government head tax of 5 c. for 2-year-olds, and 7 c. for 3-year-olds and all over that age. Where court-houses and bridges are required this tax is sometimes intreased. As the land is surveyed and sold, as it will be by-and-bye, the stockman’s expenses will be enhanced, and he will have to pay something for his grazings. Meanwhile, however, in this great free country a man settles down usually •beyond the ranges already appropriated. In the valleys of the great rivers and their tributaries he finds the most suitable location. He runs up his log-hut, or tor a trifle buys out some former squatter, builds a few sheds and corrals, buys some cows, which cost L 3 to L 4, yearlings at 30s to 40s 2-year-olds at 50s to 60s. Often the stockman begins with a partnership in a concern already running, receiving a small share; or cows and ewes are rented to steady men, the owner receiving half the produce and receiving hack after three or five years the number of breeding animals he gave. The cattle need and receive little attention ; they range instinctively in quest of the best food and water, sometimes spreadin over 50 or 70 miles ; on some runs salt is provided. Smaller owners have 1000 to 2000 head ; some of the cattle kings number their 40,000 to 50,000. The chief expenses are the wages of the stockmen and shepherds, who receive 25 dols. to 32 dols. per month (L 5 to L 6 10s), with lodgings and rations. Each man looks after about 1000 head, and in the larger ranches more. The busy time recurs twice a year, when the cattle are rounded up by men well mounted scouring the plains, bringing up the stock to the corrals, branding the young ones, separating those strayed from other ranches, and which, when duly branded, are returned to their respective owners. Opportunity is taken to make selection for sale or slaughter. The baggage waggons follow up with the cooks and provender, and the camping out last for a week or more. The stockowners, if persevering and steady, are sure to succeed. Their losses do not exceed 2or 3 per cent. Mishaps in calving are unknown; in some districts a few cases of black-leg occur ; font-and-mouth disease and contagious ifeeuro-pneumonia have never got out west. The average coat of cattle rearing does not exceed 1 dol. per head per annum, and in the larger ranches 70 c. is stated to include every outlay, including interest on capital. Government head tax, wages, and commissariat expenses. _No wonder that beef can be fed in such regions at 2d per lb! The profits from cattle raising well managed in good districts is currently reported to exceed 20 per cent, per annum. I have conversed with various cattle men who began ten or twelve years ago without a dollar, and now have ranches from which sales are annually made to the value of LSOOO. The banks, unlike their English brethren, do not refuse advances to steady graziers, who often pay 2 per cent, per month for their accommodation, and assert that even when thus handicapped they do pretty well. There are great diversities amongst the thousands of cattle reared over these vast areas. All are undergoing steady improvement, Lank, rough, profitless brutes are gradually disappearing ; the scallowags are polished* off. Well-bred bulls of Shorthorn and other breeds and well-selected grades are introduced from the eastern States. One gentleman told me in October that he had himself bred, bought, and forwarded West 1000 young Shorthorn bulls during the last three years. To insure the advantage of such imported sires, and prevent the incursion of errant Texans, inclosures are being made, in some localities. The Texas cattle, which now muster 5,000,000 are not generally beau ideals of symmetry or quality. They are narrow, often open in the loin, leggy, rough, with big beads and enormous horns, hard handlers, and often of a sickly yellow color. They are of Spanish or Mexican descent.
The Oregon cattle are more shapely, and hare less daylight underneath than those of Texas. Oregon now numbers about 500,000 cattle and 2,000,000 sheep, but has area and pasturage for twenty times these numbers.
During the summer and autumn the cattle throughout these great western grazings intended for slaughter or for feeding in the Indian corn States are collected, grazed as they steadily travel to the most convenient railways depdts on the Union or Northern Pacific railroads, which have opened up the country and given the stockmen markets for their produce. From Cheyenne, Julesburg, and other such stations, 1000 carloads' of cattle are annually despatched. MrJ. W. Iliff, from his big range, 150 miles long and about half as wide, on the South Platte River, now every year forwards 15,000 beasts. The cows each average 25 dol. ; the best for slaughter weigh, when hung up, 600 lb
to 700 lb. They are classified in the trade as Texans, good natives, butcher's cattle, and feeders. Sold on the hoof or by live weight, they vary from about 2,20 c to 3 c. per lb. They are forwarded in large numbers vid Council Bluffs to Chicago, a distance fully 1000 miles. Twenty beasts are put into each car, which is covered. In this journey they are thrice unloaded, fed, watered, and rested during twelve to twenty-four hours. The cost of this long journey is 28s for each beast. They are forwarded from Chicago (800 miles) to New York for 16s extra. When quietly travelled to the railway, carefully loaded, and properly fed and rested in transit, accidents are rare and loss of condition slight. Beasts conveyed by rail 1000 miles and weighed out of the trucks before feeding and watering, will have lost on the gross 50 to 80 lb. Upwards of 1,000,000 cattle are annually forwarded, mostly from the west and south, to the great Chicago stock yards, which cover 345 acres, and disposed of at 2s per head commission. About one-half the beasts brought in are killed in Chicago, some of the best being forwarded in quarters to Europe, many more are distributed salted, and a large and increasing amount carefully and cleanly prepared and canned for sale throughout the world. Another phrase of American meat production must not be overlooked. Over a great area of the central and southern portions of the States—in Illinois, Minnesota, lowa, down the great Missouri valley, in Kansas, and elsewhere —wherever the summer heat reaches 70 deg. Fahr., Indian corn is abundantly and cheaply grown. It occupies 52,000,000 acres, bulks nearly 200,000,000 qr., proves a tolerably certain crop, averages 27 bush, an acre, and in good localities reaches 40 bush., and costs only 34s an acre to grow it. This hand}', readily produced, cheap crop gives the American farmer immense advantage in his manufacture of beef and bacon. His corn, shelled, costs Is a bushel, oats about the same figure ; hay is 10s a ton ; bran, at 20s a ton, is usually given once or twice a week to keep the bowels open. With such variety of good, cheap materials, animals are inexpensively fed. Sheep are increasing throughout the States at the rate of 1,000,000 annually, and now reach nearly 40,000,000. In many parts of the country they are of Mexican origin, crossed with Merino grades. Hitherto they have been bred much more for the production of wool than of mutton, but now that their own as well as foreign markets are opened for mutton, Oxford and Shropshire Downs, Cotswolds, and Leicesters are being introduced, and the lank, thin bodies, big heads, and close, fine wool are undergoing transformation. In Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and other Western States, the sheep are worth 12s to 16s each. The best weigh, when fat, 60 to 70 lb. They din sto 6 lb of wool, worth lOd to Is per lb, and are considered to pay the twelve months’ expenses. From the ewes two years old and upwards 85 to 90 per cent, of annual increase is obtained, The loses under good management, in favorable situations, are estimated at about 3 per cent. American mutton, however, is not so good as American beef. There are great tracts of the continent which, owing to the extremes of winter cold and summer heat, are not well adapted to the thriving of sheep. Even where now kept they have often to be housed during three or four months in winter, and this, besides adding materially to the cost, interferes with vigorous thriving. British flock masters may, therefore, be assured that for the present, at any rate, their important business will not be seriously injured by American competition.
The same comfort cannot beadministered to British pig-breeders. The swine of the United States and of Canada are quite as good as at home. They roam healthily at large over plain and prairie, in wood and orchard; they are fed on the best of provender, often on apples and peaches. In the States they number 35,000,000. Berkshire and other English breeds, and a useful China hog, are culivated. I did not see an indifferent grunter during the whole of my travels. They cost often less than 2d per lb ; 60 per cent, of the hog products are now exported ; hundreds of tons of bacon and pork are sent to British ports at 3d per lb ; our national bacon bills reach annually L 10,000,000.
But I must hasten to a conclusion. From the facts I have brought before you, your own conclusions will be drawn as to the great resources of the western world. For years to come she must certainly be able to furnish enormous supplies of her surplus, both of wheat and meat. I have endeavored to show that with a profit to all concerned American wheat can be brought into our ports at 40s to 42s per qr. The importation of bacon, pork, lard, and canned meats ,has of late years enormously increased. The exports of batcher meat, although hitherto limited, must also undergo considerable augmentation. Of the :beef, as of other food, the United Kingdom will take the largest share. Live cattle will come freely during summer, whilst finer weather can be counted on. The ocean charges are L 3 to L 4 per head,
whilst 20s to 25s extra covers the cost of food and attendance during the voyage. For about L 8 a bullock, which costs Ud to 2d per lb live weight, can thus to brought from his native ranges on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains and landed in Liverpool This transit charge would add less than 2£d per lb to his carcase of beef. The transport of dead meat is still less. The superior beef slaughtered in New York and other Atlantic ports, and brought over in ice-cooled chambers, reaching Great Britain in excellent condition, costs for transport charges only per lb, and brings a satisfactory profit to the importer of it, is disposed of at the landing ports at fid. Importers, however, discover to their cost that the British meat market is very sensitive to extra supplies, that a few hundred carcases over the normal quantity, which at present is about ’BOOO per week, sends down the price Id or even lid per lb. Superior American carcases, weighing 800 lb, for a week or two in full markets are frequently sold at 4i per lb. This sensitiveness of the market is*at present the best protection which the British feeder has. The enormous meat-producing capabilities of America, the cheapness of her manufactures, the desirability of clearing off surplus supplies, and the low cost of transport, which, contrary to common opinion, is, I think, unlikely materially to advance, plainly indicate the improbability of high prices being obtained for British beef, or even for mutton, A few connoisseurs may willingly give upwards of Is per lb for a quarter of veritable English Down mutton or for a prime English or Aberdeen sirloin, but large foreign supplies of really good meat, offered wholesale at 6d, must pull down the price of ordinary English meat to 7-Jd or 7d. The British farmer was able some years ago to make meat at 7d or less. He must do so again. Cannot the American competition be profitably met by breeding only the best sorts, by early maturity, by the steady, continuous growing of the young stock, by avoidance of wasteful dangerous checks, by turning out 2-year-old beef and 1-year-old mutton, by more liberal use of cheap imported concentrated food, by consolidating profits, and endeavoring to do business more directly with the consumer ?
AMERICA., Ashburton Guardian, Volume 1, Issue 105, 27 May 1880, Supplement
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