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THE DAIRY.

In an address recently delivered to . his tenants, many of whom have been engaged in dairying, the Earl of Bessborough is reported to have spoken as follows For the information of those who have not yet been able to make good butter I offer the following suggestions :—Have a proper dairy or a separate room from your milk, well ventilated, but not too light, far away from stable, piggery, or manure heap. The floor should be of flags, tiles, or concrete, very close and evenly made, so that it can be easily washed without leaving any substance behind likely to create a bad smell, as it would be injurious to your milk and butter. Clay floors are very bad. Be sure not to use your milk room for any other purpose than your milk and' butter. Wash or sponge." the_ cow’s udder before milking, and youf^'iigiia,before commencing each cow. finest hair strainer you can get. Keep sll your milk vessels scrupulously clean ; never use soap in cleansing your milk vessels, not even in washing your hands, when engaged with your milk or butter. Do not keep your milk too long standing before churning. Twenty-four to thirty-six or fortyeight hours, according to the temperature of the weather, will be enough. Avoid all touching of the butter by the hand. Use the best salt, made very fine. Wash and press all the milk out of the butter before salting, using plenty of cold spring water,

You cannot be too careful about tins. In packing in firkins, get the best you can of •well-seasoned oak, beech, or ash, clean looking and smooth on the inside, and bring them clean to market. In preparing your filkins let them be filled the day wanted with boiling water, let stand until (ftld, then rinsed with clean cold water, 3to which a couple of handfuls of salt _ put. This will make your filkiu sweet and staunch. Pack your filkin as close as possible, and send it to market as soon as you can. Lei cleanliness be your constant care, from the milking of the cow until you bring your butter to the market. There are few things a farmer’s wife or daughter ought to be prouder of than her dairy and its produce. The butter buyers should encourage the use of the most suitable filkin, and might also be more careful when the butter comes into their hands. The firkins are frequently rolled about on the wet and dirty yards and. damp floors, which might be avoided. Railway and steamboat companies treat firkins in the same rough way. All should endeavor to improve, and try to bring our butter in the cleanest and most creditable condition into the English market. Then it would take its proper place, and you would get the highest price, defying foreign competition. ” FRESH STRAINS IN POULTRY. The “Poultry World” (American) gives the following advice as to the introduction of fresh strains in poultry breeding : “ The individual breeder of fowls will suspect that he needs fresh blood for his stock when the annual number of eggs diminishes, when a loss of size is noticeable, and when the flock begins to show signs of debility. But the frequency and method of introducing fresh blood is a matter that can only be decided according to the object sought after. If size and utility are desired, with no regard to permanent type, crossing every year with distinct fresh blood will give progeny, as a rule, superior to either parent stock ; but these hybrids cannot be depended upon to produce others with the same merits. On the other hand, if it is desired to establish a strain of thoroughbreds which may be relied on to breed true, then the most judicious influx of fresh blood every second year is necessary. - But here, while near relationship should be carefully avoided, itis equally important to use birds of not too remote connection with the dominant strain, iu order to preserve the preponderance of the breed sought after. Scientific breeders usually prefer hens for this purpose, as it has been ascertained that the male bird has' the most influence upon the color of the progeny and what may be called the “fancy points,” while the form, size, and useful qualities are principally derived from the hen. Hence, if the object is to preserve a specific type, there is less risk in using a hen, as the progeny, if not satisfactory, may be killed ; while if the cross be with a male from new blood, and the young prove undesirable, the whole season’s work is lost. When a strain has been fully established, it is a good plan to put a promising cockerel in an adjoining yard, and bring him back in a year or two, when the relationship will lie remote enough to infuse without deranging the type.

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THE DAIRY. Ashburton Guardian, Volume 1, Issue 82, 3 April 1880

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