THE BRUSH ELECTRIC LIGHT.
(From the London Times.) Among the various systems of elocmc lighting occasionally heard of in England, but hitherto unseen here, is that of Mr. C. F. Brush, of the United States. Tin's system consists of a dynamo electric machine and a lamp, both of which possess speck'constructive features. The most prominent peculiarities of the machine are embodied in the armature, the arrangement of field magnets, and the commutator. The armature consists of a flat ring of soft cast iron, revolving in its own plane. This ring is composed of several parts, each provided with a series of grooves and insulated from each other, so as to effectually prevent the induction of currents in the iron itself when it is revolved in a magnetic field. On this ring are wound bobbins of armature conductor, the planes of which radiate from the axis of rotation. The field magnets of the machine face boi a sides of the armature in the plane of its rotation thus both sides of the flat bobbins of armature conductor are exposed to the direct inductive influence of the magnets. The commutator consists of four separate rings of metal, each ring consisting of two nearly senii-circu'av segments, the ends of which on one side are separated by a considerable space. This space is occupied by a piece of metal attached to an adjoining ring, and known as an insulator. It is insulated by an air space from each of tlie segments between whose ends it is located, the other ends of the segments being simply separated by a single air space. The novel method of connection adopted resulted in the production from a given amount of power of an available current, which is stated to be longer than that which has hitherto been obtained from any other combination. The current produced is continuous, and of such a nature as to enable it to overcome a great external resistance. The lamps or regulators hold the carbon rods in a vertical position and contain no clockwork or other mechanism, and no regulation or adjustment of any kind is required beyond that of renewing the carbon when consumed. By means of a magnetic control and automatic cut-off arrangement eiich lamp, though in continuous circuit with many others, is independent in its working. Thus, should an accident happen to any one lamp on a given circuit, the others remain unaffected, although the one be extinguished. These points and many others were successfully demonstrated to a party of scientific gentlemen at the offices of the Anglo-American Electric Light Company in Hatton garden, where several of the brush machines of various powers were inspected. The machine specially used in the leading experiments was of 16-light power, and from it 16 brilliant lights were produced one circuit, which consisted of 250 ft. of No. 9 B. W. G. copper wire conductor. During the experiments the current was switched into a circuit of similar wire one mile and a quarter in length, plus the 250 ft. of short circuit, without in any way apparently affecting the brilliancy of the 16 lights. The machine was driven by an Sdiorse power portable engine made by Messrs. Wallis and Steevens, of Basingstoke, and indicating power. The engine worked at 501 b. steam pressure and ran at 350 revolutions per minute. The result of the experiment was very satisfactory, the lamps giving a clear steady light, the steadiness being promoted by the use of caibons which are specially made for the Brush jgstem. This system has come largely ikSWt©? in the United States, where there are 800 lamps in use at the present time. They appear to be in considerable request for lighting mills and factories, some 40 of these establishments being lighted by them with satisfactory results. It is from practical use in one of these works that some definite idea of the cost of this light is gained. In one case the cost of gas is stated to have been 16s. per hour, at 4s. per 1,000 cubic feet. The Brush light is now doing the same work as the gas did at a cost of 4s. per hour, steam power being available at the works. "Where engine power has to be provided, the actual total cost, including interest on machinery, labor, fuel, maintenance, and carbons, is placed at something less than 2d. per light. per hour. This estimate is based upon the experience obtained in working in the United States. From the successful results ©f the experiments last evening we may hope for an early practical application of the system, which, so far, has shown itself to be very simple and reliable.
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