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THE FARMER.

PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. Pleuro pneumonia is prevalent in Australia, and Mr. C. J. Valentine, Chief Inspector of Sheep for South Australia, gives the following directions for inoculating cattle as a preventative to their becoming infected with pleuro-pneumonia, a system which is worthy of attention in this colony: —“ Inoculation has been practiced with success in the colonies, in South Africa, and other places. Care being taken in obtaining the virus or lymph, and also in the operation, it will be found a preventative to the spread of pleuro-pneumonia amongst healthy animals. It must be thoroughly understood that inoculation will not cure diseased animals. Medical treatment is useless, and the disease can only be successfully eradicated by the adoption of stringent preventative measures, early isolation of suspected animals, destroying and burning the carcases of diseased ones, and inoculating all animals exposed to contagion. Animals once attacked are liable to relapse, acting as centres of contagion, and perpetuating the disease. Modes of Operating.—At present cattle are usually inoculated on the outside of the tail, about one to one and a half inches from the tip, in one of the two following ways :—l. With a lancet or knife dipped into the lymph. 2. With a needle like an elongated speying one, and a thread saturated with lymph. A portion of,tJw?jyrf?ad may be left in the wound of the lymph. Care mvtet taken not to wound the nerves and muscles of the tail, as it is apt to unfavorable swelling. If all gcnSSwvell the inoculation ought to take well before the week is out. Unfavorable symptoms set in sometimes between the fifteenth and twentieth day after inoculation, and show a swelling spreading from the wound up the tail in the body ; the glands at either side of the root swelling up and stopping the passages—the beast either dies from that or from maggots in

the sore. As soon as you see the swelling cut and scarify just above it, avoiding the artery that runs down the middle of tiro tail; this will stop it. Some use ointment, but it is not generally found necessary. How to obtain inoculating lymph. —Having selected r.a animal suffering from plouro, slaughter in the usual way. The carcase being properly bled, open the chest, and if the disease has reached the proper stage (second stage) the lymph will be found round the consolidated lung, frequently enclosed in cells like a honeycomb of coagulated fibrino. Lymph may also occasionally bo obtained from tire substance of the lung—in that portion only of a salmon colour. The proper inoculating lymph is recognised by being of a sherry wine colour. It coagulates, on cooling, into a transparent jelly, has no offensive smell, and feels sticky when rubbed between the finger and thumb. Mistakes are* frequently made by using the watery effusion or scrum found in the chest and substance of the lung, and the efficacy of inoculation is frequently condemned in consequence. Such mistakes must therefore bo carefully avoided, as the success of the operation depends upon using the proper lymph, which should be strained before beirg used, and a supply for future use be placed in small phials and preserved by adding an eighth part of pure glycerine, and kept in a cool place or underground.”

HOW FAR APART SHALL WE PLANT FRUIT TREES ?

This subject of the best distance at which to put fruit trees is one on which there is undoubtedly a great difference of opinion, and we cannot hope to give universal satisfaction. A consideration of the varying circumstances bf soil and climate will aid one in arriving at a just conclusion. On poor soil trees need more room than if on rich soil. Ihe heaviest forests grow where the soil is richest. In planting an orchard, which will, it is to be hoped, last for many years, and give pleasure to successive generations, it is best to do the work well. When properly cultivated the tree-tops in a twenty-year old orchard will spread twenty feet or more from the base. Sometimes men have planted as close as fifteen feet each way, because it “saved room,” or seemed to do so. The trees would grow well for a few years, till they shaded the ground, and then would begin to run up in search of more air and light. They ceased to bear, and were only good to make stove-wood of. Too close planting is the one irredeemable error of many orchardists. To cite a case in point. A gentleman of our acquaintance desired some years ago to plant out an orchard. Having an opportunity, be rented a field to a neighboring nurseryman to plant some small trees on, with the understanding that when, on the ensuing year the trees were removed, there should be sufficient for an orchard left standing in the rows. When the time came, trees were selected and marked so as to stand eight feet apart each way, and the remaining trees were dug out. Although the trees thus left for an orchard were of unusual size and health, yet in less than five years the orchard seemed past its prime. It yielded one or two crops, and then the fruit was inferior. Half the trees were cut out in alternate rows, and the improvement was at once perceptible. A second cutting out a few years later left them so that they now stand 24 feet by 1G feet, and it is a productive orchard at the present time. In ordinary loam soil, the roots of a twelve-year-old fruit tree will extend 25ft. in all directions. This statement is much within bounds. We have seen roots of much greater length uncovered while digging to lay irrigation pipes, or washed out by the ravages of floods. In one memorable instance, in Alameda county, the light and rich surface soil of an orchard was swept off by a violent freshet, and the surface roots of an apple tree were exposed to view. We were able to trace them some sixty feet from the base of the tree, although the tree itself was but 15 years old. Such instances as this make it evident that the roots of the trees in an orchard must lock and interlock in a perfect underground network. It is an unending struggle for existence. Botanists say that the feeders of the roots—the root hairs—are renewed every few weeks through the growing season. The small roots die and others grow, so that the roots feed on new ground continually. In view of these facts, it seems desirable that trees of long-lived kinds of fruit, such as the apple, pear, fig, walnut and almond, should not be planted nearer than forty feet apart each way. There is then room for light and air and, as we have seen, the roots will utilize all the soil. Peach trees, or any oilier shorterlived fruit tree, or temporary crops, may well be planted in the space between the more permanent varieties, to grow as long as is deemed desirable. A surface crop which requires thorough cultivation and responds to good treatment, docs no harm in a young orchard, if the soil is good, but fertilizers should bo used for the young crop. Corn and beans are usually chosen to plant between the trees for the first few years. A Hartford man’s excuse for stealing a pair of chickens was that while at work he hung his coat near the coop, and on going for it he found the chickens roosted on the same. He hadn’t the heart to wake them up he said, so lie wound his coat around them without waking them and carried them off. His defence was ingenious, but he was sent up for three months all the same. For continuation of reading matter see fourth f a S e -

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THE FARMER. Ashburton Guardian, Volume 1, Issue 68, 2 March 1880

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