Health of Horses.
The health and comfort of horses have of late years been greatly improved by the better construction of stables. They are made more roomy and lofty, and provided with means of thorough ventilation. In many new stables loftsare done away with, or the floor of the loftsiskeptwellabovetha horses’ heads, and ample shafts are introduced to convey away foul air. By perforated bricks and gratings under the
manger and elsewhere round the walls, and also by windows and ventilators, abundance of pure air is secured for the horses, while, being introduced in moderate amount and from various directions, it comes in without draught. Too much draught is almost an unknown stable luxury. To secure a constant supply of pure air horses require more cubic space than they generally enjoy. Even when animals are stabled only at night a minimum of 1200 cubic feet should be allowed. In England the new cavalry barracks give a minimum of 1509 feet, with a ground area of fully 90 square feet per horse, and the best hunting, and carriage horse stables have more room. Subsoil Irrigation.
A limited amount 'of water (says an American contemporary) will irrigate ten times the amount of ground on the subirrigation plan than it would on the flooding or surface method. It is only a question of limited time when this new method of irrigation will be generally adopted in all countries where irrigation is required, and especially in Southern California, where it will soon bring thousands of acres into cultivation that otherwise would remain in a wild state for years to come. That the reader may have a more definite idea of subirrigation, we will explain the modus operandi, and when once understood it commends itself a success to every intelligent mind. It consists of pipes made of lime and sand, made by machinery (and is continuous if desired, without joint) and laid along each row of trees, 18 inches or two feet below the surface, so as to be out of the way of the plough. At each tree there is a small orifice in the pipe, from which the water issues. This orifice is protected by a pipe which rests on the main pip 6, and extends above the ground six or more inches. The water passes out under the lower end of it on to the roots of the tree, sending them down instead of to the surface, as in -surface irrigation. Evaporation takes place under the earth, and spreads moisture for many feet around, so that the ground midway between the rows is sufficiently moist to grow any kind of crop. Exciting Milch Cows. The “ National Live Stock Journal ” in treating on the effect of exercise and excitement on milk, says :—The dairyman’s pocket is sensibly affected by a proper understanding of this question. But there are very few, comparatively, who have discovered the real effect of exercise upon the milk product. Many suppose that advere exercise in the cow simply affects the quantity, but not particularly the quality ; and a still greater number have never given the matter any consideration, but evidently do not think it has any bad effect, as witness those who worry their cows with dogs. Many allow their cows to be driven on a run to and from pasture, no doubt regarding this as so much gain in time. But any violent exercise has a very serious effect upon the most valuable element in the milk—the butter. Liebig observed that the milk of the cow had a much larger proportion of casein when subjected to much exercise. Dr. Carpenter suggested that this comes from the breaking down of nitrogenized tissues. He also states that cows in Switzerland that pasture on the sides of steep mountains, and are obliged to use great muscular exertion, yield a very small quantity of butter, but a large proportion of cheese ; yet, the same cows when stall fed, give a large quantity of butter and a very small proportion of cheese. It seems to be well Jaettled that active exercise or excitement eseens the proportion of butter in milk. How important the application of these facts are to the profitable dairying must be evident to any one. Those who have been in the habit of driving their cows long distances to pasture, and returning them in the evening to be milked, will see the necessity of discontinuing this, or if that cannot be done, they will see the propriety of driving them as steadily and leisurely as possible. Any large amount of exercise is at the expense of the yield and quality of the milk ; but excitement from rough treatment is most unprofitable of all; and a dairyman who employs a rough, passionate milker among his cows, does little better than he who worries them with a dog. Such a man may easily reduce the yield and quality of the milk in the herd more than all his labor is worth. He deserves to be treated as he treatshis cows—kicked off the premises—but as violence only excites violence, it is better to restrain such indignation, and inform him, with all due courtesy, that bis manners cannot longer be suffered to demoralise the herd. Indeed, this is not a small matter ; it would take millions to compensate for the losses sustained from the rough, brutal treatment of dairy stock. We trust that dailymen will begin at the commencement of the season to study, not only the points given in this article, but everything to the improvement of their herds. Let every cow be examined, and her good and bad qualities noted, all from the standpoint of profit; that is what they are kept for, and it is not unlikely that when brought to the standard of profit, mmy in most hprfis of much size will be found unprofitable, and they should be weeded out.
The “ Book Farmer.” —No farmer can succeed at the present day unless he be a “ book farmer,” and the first book he will need at this time will be a memorandum book in which he may jot down whatever may occur to him as needing to be done. If he attends to this “ b»ok farming” properly, he will find that a good many entries will have to be made, and everything set down should be taken up in or4eff. The secret of those who are known as gvea(.workers, is that fhey work methodically, and do everything at the proper time, and there is no business in which so much will fail, unless the work be done when it should be, as that of farming. One day’s delay may not be recovered during the whole season.
It has been facetiously said that when, the North Pole is discovered, a Scotsman will sr.ep out from the long hidden shore and bid the discoverer welcome with a hearty, “ Hoo’s a’ wi’ ye, man,” and then-, with pawky banter, Scottie will sing for the amusement of his guest a verse or two of the Jacobite song, “ Oh, but ye’ve been lang a coming. “ Lang, lang, lang, a coming.”
The North Pole has not yet been discovered by anyone that we ever heard of, so we are not in a position to say whether Lowland Scotch or Highland Gaelic is the language spoken in the undiscovered country. But there have been new lands discovered elsewhere, and old lands have been travelled to, and in every land under ■ the sun where a white man has a chance to live, move, and have his being, there ’ most assuredly may be. found some representative of the “ land o’ cakes,” some “ brither Scot ” whose Doric will glad the ear of his wandering countrymen, and ‘ proclaim the speaker’s nationality at once,. to the English listener. Notwithstanding the Scotsman’s weakness for travel, he is . credited above all other kinships with possessing a strong love for his country, ■■ his countrymen, and the institutions and!, and associations of the land that bred him.-; This feature of the Scottish character been immortalised by every poet the country has yet produced, and so well known is its existence that ill-natured persona have set down Scotchmen as clannish tothe last degree, and ready to defend or favor a countryman, no matter how wicked or how worthless. Those who - know Scotchmen thoroughly will be.perfectly ready to acquit them of any suchunworthy feeling, though allowing that the Scot is ever ready to help a deserving fellow countryman. Wherever he goes the North Briton carries with him cherished recollections of his home, and as he always meets, no' matter where his wandering feet may carry him, some men whose accent is as familiar to him as his to them, these recollections are refreshed at every "fofgathering. ” . One result of this homelove in the Scotchman is the existence all over the world, where Scotchmen, are found, of what have been called in places Caledonian Societies, St. Andrew’s Societies, Celtic Societies, Highland Societies, as the whim of the members may will. They are found in many English and Irish towns more or less flourishing. Scarcely an American township of any note but registers a Caledonian Society in its list of public institutions. They crop up in every British colony; they are found here and there over the Goiitinent of Europe; Asia and Africa help also to swell the list; and last, but not least, the Australasian colonists owe many a gala day to the annual sports meeting of the Caledonian Societies, which under some name or other keep green his country’s memory in the Scottish-Austrs-lasian’s breast.
In many cases people believe that the sole function of the Caledonian Society ia to get up an annual meeting at which- contests in the national sports of the. country are contested. But this is only , a secondary object of the Society’s existence. Amongst its other aims it endeavor* to promote benevolence amongst its members, and it has an organisation for raising funds to aid such charitable, institutions as the Directors may select as . worthy recipients of the Society’s 'help. No particular nationality is selected for this aid as the Society in the dispensation of its benevolence, while it does not forget the country that gives ititsname, has in remembrance the great of humanity, and strives to alleviate suffering whether lodged in the person of a white man or a black. Specially is its help offered to newly arrived immigrants, and special cases of destitution, no matter what the birthplace of the destitute ones, are cared for as the Society’s funds- may be able, and as the Directors may deem expedient. It would be extraordinary 'in Scotchmen, born in a country that:, has; done so much for the education of .'her. sons, were the question of education ! to have no attention from such a Society as the Caledonian, and it is only to hfe expected that as soon as their funds will permit they should offer prizes - to be competed for in our Educational Institutions,. A further educational aim is to procure and disseminate information regarding the poetry, history, and archaeology of Scotland.
Most prominently, however, the Caledonian Society comes before the public as the preserver of the customs and accomplishments of the Scottish people. We say the Society comes most prominently before the public in this because this part of the Society’s duty takes the form of an annual gathering, at which all the gamea and sports in which the Scotchman takes delight are engaged in. The sturdy Highlander heaves up the ponderous cabar, and throws the heavy sledge, the stalwart Lowlander puts the stone, or struggles at the “ sweer tree.” .. Kilted clansmen dance the Highland ding, or ghillie callum to the music of the bagpipes, contesting for individual honors, while “ foursomes ” of the same picturesquely clad Highlanders beat the turf to ■“ humcanes of Highland reels,” and liting strathspeys. All the other athletics common to Anglo-Saxons are indulged in, and the whole meeting usually forms an attractive gathering, not only to the Highlander and Lowlander, but to the SsSsenach who never saw a sprig of heather civ a bine bell in bis life.. So long as Irishmen die the “ wake” will live as a custom, and so lang as Scotchmen live Caledonian Societies will never die. They tend to keep alive the best part of a Scotchman’s nature and cherish kindly feelings within him not only for his countrymen but for his neigh-, hors who are not his countrymen jp the sense of birth ; ap4 ft proof of the good they do, and the better feelings they engender is given in the fact that a third part of nearly every Caledonian Society’s membership comprises men who have no more idea of what the “ bonnie hills of Scotland” are like than they have of the characteristics of the mountains in the moon. In the nobler purposes of the Society every good man will wish it “ Godspeed.”- •
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