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THE FARMER.

AGRICULTURAL PAPERS. ■ “ THE AGRICULTURALIST.” Part 11. STATISTICS OP THE UNITED KINGDOM., total Home produce can now be correctly calculated from the annual returns.' The, collection 'of returns was instituted. in Ireland at time of the potato famine in 1847 . It only since 1867 that- they 1 have beet yearly. The information is colby the Constabulary, a semi-military stationed it all parts of the country, is arranged by the - Registrar-General, annually printed. . experience, of has created such' a fund yf local knqwthatthere cap now be.no doubt eritorof tke substantial accuracy of the reHunu. Miiiuts accuracy is not expected or , but sxe comparisons from year to show the relative correctness obtained be sufficient for all practical..purposes, value of this information is powerfully forth in -the following statement, showcomparative t quantity and value of ■ Home and foreign agricultural produce ■ consumed annually in the United KingTable showing comparative quantity and value of Home and foreign agricultural produce annually consumed for 1877: —-

It is shown, from the above, statement that the, total value of the home crop is more than .that of the imported,' but the proportion of vegetable and animal food is singularly close, as will be shown by this further arrangement of figures :—r Home growth. , £ £ Value of Corn and vegetable produce ... ... 1*5.737.50° 52.537.5°° Value of Animal produce ... 135,000,000 58,170,006 260,737,500 110,707,500 The quantity of Indian corn imported in 1876 was nearly f 40,000,000 cwts, an amount quite exceptional and unprecedented, and therefore not included in its frill amount in. the preceding ; 'tahle ; Table showing average price of British wheat, barley, and oats in the United Kingdom, per imperial,quarter ot 8 bushels, in each of the 16 years 1863-1878. . , . . ~

barley, 375. 6d ; oats, 24s gtl. These averages will no doubH he of interest to the New Zealand agriculturalist, ■and may he lookec.', upon as valuable records, not only for the lisa of those directly occupied ingrain growing—but of considerable interest to others. The following is the analysis extending over sixteen years. This staten lent shows the maximum and ' fninimu: rn yearly average price realised for whes vt, barley, and oafs, and the general average prices per Imperial quarter for the peri< id referred -to, namely, 1863 to 1878. WHEAT. s. d. Mix'mum yearly average per Imperial qliarter 64 6 Minimum yearly average per Imperial quarter ... ... 4* o General average' per Imperial quarter for sixteen years ... ... 51, 5 BARIEV. Maximum yearly aveiage per Imperial quarter ... .. ... ... ,44 11 Minimum yearly average per Imperial quarter ... ... ... 39 9 General average per Imperial quarter lor s xtceh years ... ,37 6 _ , OATS. Maximum yearly avei-age per Im-" perial quarter ... ... ... -28 8 , Mwriruum,yearly average per Imperial quarter. ~i., 20 7 General average per Imperial for sixteen years ... . 24 9 . " jpßqpoQzios - or lanoownekb the rCHITRn KINGDOM TO , TEE WI lOXE POPU , kvsO.OOO -to ,33,000,0 30. _ - r The 41 Doomsday Book ” for the United ||j|aagdoin, lately published, divides the

landcfwnei's into two classe*—those who have loss than one acre of land, and those who Jiave one acre and upwards. The former comprise 70 per cent, of the whole, but as none of this class has so much as an acre and they hold altogether less than, a two hundredth part of the land, they may be regarded as householders only. Excluding these, as not . properly agricultural landowners, it may then, fairly be said . that one person in every huh«jred;of .the entire population of the United Kingdom is a landowner. Subdividing that figure- by -the- average number Of each family, it may. be concluded, that every twentieth head' of a family is;an owner of land.

THE MOST STRIKING PBATCBBS OP RECENT ACRICTH/TUBAL PROGRESS.

Before entering on a more detailed description ■ of the principles which •generally regulate • the' management of agricultural and other landed property ■, it may , pehaps', be Advisable briefly to notice the progress recently made, together with the changes which science and art, or the operation of other combined l causes, in connection with the ; present position of the British farmer, and the effect of such in regard to competition, which may have been in consequence thus forced upon him.

"One of the most striking features in connection with agricultural progression is the general introduction of the fanner’s real friend —the reaper and binder, which has multiplied the effects of human labor to a most wonderful extent, and that, too, at the most critical season of the year.—harvest time, when the salvation of tho entire crop at times depends on the expedition with which it is gathered in. There is also iii use a machine for haymaking, possessing similar advantages. It ■ would, indeed be difficult to estimate, generally speaking, the benefits which have accrued from the introduction of these two highly important labor-saving machines. Next to the economy of labor may be ranked the continued increase of produce, brought about by the expedient of taking two com crops in succession. Where the land is clean, and in high condition, and where the agriculturist is free to follow a rational system of farming, the four-course system of alternate com and green crops, wheat, turnips, barley, and grass, have two great advantages—first, by alternating restorative and ; cleansing crops with corn ; and second, by regular distribution of labor throughout the year. This is now the most modem system followed in Great Britain.'' It is pointed- out with great force how such a course might be. beneficial, and become an instrument of groat national value if any unforeseen occurrence should cut off one of the main supplies of wheat —that of Russia for example. If only the twentieth part of the com land of the United Kingdom were called on to bear an additional wheat crop, tho loss would be at once made good, and with no perceptible strain on the present agricultural system. By this means, if all Europe were shut against Great Britain, she would be quickly able to meet the increased home demand by double cropping, to the extent of onetenth of her com land. It is clear that at present Great Britain possesses, in this power of taking a second wheat crop, a latent reserve force, which might on very short notice bo brought into action; and this is without reckoning anything on the immense reserve power of eereail production which is stored up in the pasture lands, ready in case of need. It is a power, moreover, that will check any considerable permanent rise in the price of wheat, and which would dispel all predictions likely to arise at anything that high settled rates can rule. A decline in the acreage under wheat is, when not caused by a bad seedtime, the natural result of low price ; but when the price rises, increased acreage quickly follows. Were the price to rise steadily, and show signs of permanence, the second crop system would extend, and effectually check the rise in price. (To be Continued.)

Description. Home Growth cwts. Foreign Growth. - cwts. Total. cwts. Value of Honie Growth. Value of Foreign Growth. Total Value, ■ Wheat ... SI,000,000 55,000,000 110,000,000 £32,187,500 187, seo £64,375,000 Barley ... 44,000,000 11,000,000 55,000,000 19.800,000 4.950.000 24,750; 600 Oats 64,000,000 12,000,00b 76,000,000 28,800,000 5,400,000 34,260,000 Beans and peas... 14,000,000 5,000,000 19,000,000 .6,360,000 2,250,000 8,550,000 Indian corn 20,000,000 20,000,000 7,000,000 . 7,000,000 Total corn 177,000,000 103,000,000 280,000,000 87,087,500 51,787,500 138,875,000 Potatoes ... .. 111,000,000 5,000,000 116,000,600 16,650,600 750,000 17,400,000 Butchers’ meat, bacon, ham,- and pork 24,500,000 6,000,000 30,800,000 87,000,000 22,050,000 109,650,000 Cheese and butter ... 3,000; 000 3,100,000 6,100,000 13,500,000 14,000,000 27,500,600 Wool 1,214,000 3i 160,000 4.374. coo 8,500,000 22,120,000 30,620,000 Milk ... ... ... ... ... Hay for horses, agricultural & not agri26,000,000 •••■ : - 26,000,000 cultural ... SO; ooo, 066 80,000,000 16^00, 000 - 16,000,000 Straw, sold for town consumption . . 40,000,000 40,000, «oo 6,000,000 6,000,000 Total 1 436,714,000 *20,560,000 557.274.000 260,737,500 110,707,500 37* 445-wo.l

Year, Wheat. Barley. Oats, s. d. ?. d. s. d. 1863 44 9 33 “ 21 2 1864 , 40 2 29 n 20 1 1S65 4110 29 9 21 IO 1866 49 « 37 5 24 7 1867 64 6 40 0 26 I 1S68 63 9 43 0 28 1 1869 48 2 39 5 26 0 1870 , 46 IO 34 7 22 IO 1871 56 IO 36 2 25 2 1872 57 0 37 4 23 , 3 1873 ... 58 8 4® 5 3 5 5 1874 55 9 44 11 28 IO 1875 45 2 38 s 28 8 1876 46 2 35 2 26 3 1877 56 9 39 8 25 11 1878 5 40 2 j 24 4 General average for 16 years—Wheat,' 51s 5<1;

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THE FARMER. Ashburton Guardian, Volume I, Issue 32, 9 December 1879

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