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THE FARMER., Ashburton Guardian, Volume I, Issue 17, 4 November 1879
A Remarkable Pyramid of Cheese.
At the recent dairy fair in New \ ork the most conspicuous objects wers two immense pyramids of cheese, one on either side of the hall. That on the right contained ten tons of Vermont and Western cheese ; that on the left was still larger ; it was decorated with flags, ivy > evergreens, and upon its summit a fine Jersey cow,—dead of course, but handsomely mounted and quite life-like This pyramid was constructed and exhibited by the Messrs H. K. and F. B. Thurber, of New York. It comprised many varieties of home and foreign make. The lower course was a row of great cheeses, each weighing about SOOlbs, and ornamented with cards, bearing appropriate inscriptions, among which were: “And carry these ten cheeses, with the captains of their thousand, and look how their brethren fare.”—l Samuel, xvii, IS ; “ A last course at dinner without cheese, is like a pretty women with only one eye.”— “ Brillat Savarin.”, Above these were arranged smaller American, and the peculiar shaped and fancy foreign cheeses. On one side was a Gruyere cheese, with the inscription from Hudibras : “And prove that she .. is not made of green cheese,” and a jolly face representing “ the man in the moon.” The Messrs Thurber contributed largely to the interest and success of the fair. At one end of the pryamid was a table, containing a large variety of foreign cheeses, including oddly shaped ones from Italy, made of goats’ milk, and put up in bladders ; the famous English Stilton and Cheddar varieties, Irish cheese, French and Swiss cheese, which the firm procured abroad and brought over especially for this exhibition.
Coal Pirea—Practical Hints,
So much of the comfort, health, and economy, depends upon the proper management of coal fires during winter, that we offer a few common-sense suggestions which may be new to some readers who have not given thought to the subject.—ln renewing a fire in a stove or furnace, it is customary to dash in a lot of coal, entirely covering that already on fire. The result is a cold spell, cessation of cooking, etc., for half an hour, more or less, depending upon the kind of coal, its size and quality, the draft, and the amount already ignited. Often the fire vexatiously goes out. This can be avoided by piling all the fresh coal on half or so of that already on fire. The burning portion will partially maintain the heat, will keep up the draft, and rapidly extend through the fresh coal. When that is well on fire, it can be spread over the whole, or if needed more coal can be put on the other side, leaving the new coal on the other side well burning. In this way a continuous heat can be maintained, with far less risk of extinguishing what we have. This may seem a small matter, but it will often contribute a great deal of comfort, and often save weak or sickly or damp persons from taking or increasing a cold. In the kitchen it may save the spoiling of good cooking or baking. In large steamships, a steady power is kept up by having several fire boxes under the same boiler, and replenishing only one at a time. When a coal fire is almost out it can be started afresh by first adding a little fine coal over the fire, with a bit or two of dry wood if needed, and with coal enough to concentrate the draft upon the little fire remaining. STARTING COAX, FIRES. In starting a coal fire, a great point is to concentrate the draft. If kindling wood is abundant and cheap a great quantity may be thrown in and fired, and when well lighted coal thrown on freely. But usually it is better to put a little kindling in a compact heat in one place, at the middle of the grating ; when well started, put over it a little fine coal, and cover all the rest of the grate with at least coal enough to turn the draft of air through the kindling point. It will burn more certainly and more rapidly, and extend to the rest of the mass much sooner than if the kindlings were spread out so as to give no strong heat to the hard coal at any point. The best kindling for hard coal is a few shavings or paper to catch from the match ; over this a little pine, cut short ; and over this a little charcoal, or dry hard wood only half a foot or so in length, and slit fine — all the kindling in one pretty compact mass. The point is to get heat enough to ignite the hard coal. When the draft is not strong, or one is in haste, cover all the grating with a few thicknesses of waste paper, with some coal upon it, except right under the kindlings. This will concentrate the draft at that point, and greatly. The paper will burn oft’ as the fire proceeds, and admit the air to the other points. SAVING co A 1.. In mild weather much coal might be saved in large stoves, or furnaces, or grates, by covering a part of the grating with brick, or fiat stones, or even clay, or by covering part of the coal with fine ashes, so that the draft of air can only pass through part of it. A little skill and care in this will effect a great saving of fuel, and supply an amount of heat adapted to the weather dr to the rooms to be warmed. 1 we prefer a pretty large fire box in a stove or furnace, and in the cook stove even,' the burning portion to be contracted or regulated as above ; we then have ampleroom for a large fire in extreme cold* weather, or for an emergency. The brick or clay can be removed from any part of the grating as desired. SIZE OE COAT.. The smallest coal that will not drop through the grating is usually the most economical for all fires, even for large heating furnaces. Large lump, or egg coal even, requires a considerable depth of mass to burn well or, indeed, to keep ignited at all. Fine coal two or three inches in depth will keep on fire and its rapidity of burning can be easily regulated by the dampers, opening the upper door, rr by covering a part or the whole with ashes, to be raked off or shaken out as necessary. For the cooking stove or range, with three tons of moderately small “ stove-coal ” size, we buy one ton of “chestnut” or “nut”/
size, to be used in kindling, in starting up afresh quickly, and when only a small fire is wanted for a short time. For the largest heating furnace we use “egg” size (not lump), and with each four or five tons, one ton of stove size, and half a ton of chestnut size—the smaller sizes for kindling and renewing, and when but little fire is required—regulating consumption with dampers, ash covering, or stopping port of the grating.
THE FARMER., Ashburton Guardian, Volume I, Issue 17, 4 November 1879
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