A Large American Dairy.
At the Lebanon creamery, Madison Co., the Dairy Company comprises 24 factories or creameries and some 10,000 to 11,000 cows. The creamery at Lebanon Hollow is managed by Captain Hatch, who oversees twelve of the twenty-four factories above named. This factory has the milk from about 500 cows, but has the cream from from several other factories, as this is a churning and butter as well as a cheese factory. They churn from 800 to 1,2001 b of butter daily, and make 20 and 21 cheeses of 40lb each. Their help is five clean men, quick and handy—three for he cheese and. two for the butter—with the help of a patient, strong home at the treadmill. Four band churns with dashers work like a pair of scales, churning about 501 b each at a time. When the butter comes it is rolled out, and the butter taken out with a ladle. The churn is then emptied of buttermilk, filled again, and put back, the horse not stopping but going a little faster, as there are only three churns till the other is replaced. A young man, dressed for the work, with arms bare to the shoulders, as arc all the inen ■when at work, puts this butter with a ladle upon a flat, inclined table with narrow sides, and runs a fluted roller with a crank over it and under it, pouring on water and working lightly, quickly, and with skill. He salts it and rolls it in, in masses of 35 to 401 b at a time, and with a gma.ll ladle tosses it into a large tub, with scarce a touch of the hand. It waits there till the day after, when it goes to the packing room, is put upon a triangularshaped inclined table, with a roller fast at one end, and working sideways, where it is worked and finished for packing, when it is placed in firkins and tubs, in beautiful golden masses, all exactly alike and of the same flavor —10001 b of blitter all alike, and all just right; and the day after the same, and so on through the whole Season. Before these crearaeams were used you would hardly find ten packages of butter, the best that was made, but what there would be ten different flavors, if not half as many different qualities. The cheeses are worked up by hand mostly, and when pressed are about 14in. across and 7in. thick, and as nearly alike as two or more things can be, every one perfect. To the consumers, who have an opinion that butter and cheese made in factories, and particularly by men, is not clean, I want to say—Go and see. I think the butter and cheese made in this factory are cleaner than the neatest woman in Lebanon can possibly make it. —Dem. Republican, Hamilton, Madison Co., New York. A New Use for Red Cabbage. MM. Savigny and Colineau have just made an original discovery of considerable practical importance. They have succeeded in extracting from red cabbage or broooli a coloring matter which is absolutely inoffensive, and capable of application in all the ordinary operations of painting, printing, and dyeing. To this they have given the name “ Cauline,” from the Latin “ Caulis,” a cabbage. The leaves of the plant are cut into small pieces, thrown into boiling water in the proportion of 31bs. of the leaf to three litres of water, and there left to macerate for twenty-four hours ; at the end of this time, they are withdrawn and subjected to strong pressure, and the juices thus expressed are added to the liquor of infusion. As thus obtained the “ cauline ” is of a blue-violet colour, and forms the base of a series of derivatives constituting precipitate of various colors. For example, Baracauline, obtained by introducing two grammes of baryta into 500 grammes of cauline, affords a light green dye. A fine blue green, “ chlorocalcicauline,” may be obtained by mixing 100 grammes of anhydrous chloride of lime with 500 grammes of cauline ; or an artificial bronze by adding 100 grains of chloride of manganese and 5 grammes of baryta to 500 grammes of cauline, the resulting coloring matter being called “ mango-cauline. ” Lastly, an ultramarine blue, “ zincocarbocanline,” is obtained by mixing forty grammes of chloride of zinc and twentyfive grammes of carbonate of soda with 500 grammes of the infusion liquid. Gravel Drains. Stone and tile are mostly-timed m underdraining, but when neither can he obtained without considerable trouble and we should not hesitate to use lo3tW§W«PBr for short or lateral drains, if it could be readily obtained. Gravel should only be used in clay or tenacious soils, for reasons that are obvious. The drain is made of the usual or required depth, and not over eight inches wide at the bottom—six inches would bo preferable; then fill up with from five to seven inches of coarse gravel; by coarse, is meant small, round stones from threequarters down to an eighth of an inch in diameter. The small, flat, oblong, and rounded gravel, usually found upon the beds of our rivers, lakes etc., will answer equally as well as all rounded specimens. It is always best to scatter straw, sod, leaves, or ever green boughs over the gravel ere the dirt is thrown back, to prevent a possibility of the earth settling in the graveL For an out-let, take a box with both ends open, six inches square, and four to six feet in length ; and before the top is nailed on, nail a piece of coarse mesh sieve across the trough upon its inside, which -will keep the gravel from working out by action of water. To prove the water-carrying capacity of gravel you have but to throw a few quarts of water into a. pail or box of gravel, and notice that it instantly filters tlirough.
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