New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, Volume I, 21 August 1839, Page 7
Advertisements have appeared' offering" sections for sale, and stating, as an. in.ducement to purchase, that buyers' are entitled to free cabin passages to New Zealand. Had- the advertisers read the terms- under which the sales were made by the company, they must' have known ■that the privilege could' not' be asserted after the 25th July. Nor" can 1 a- party •who- has asserted the claim transfer the free passage on selling the land. This point has' been raised-, and< so- decided. Were this privilege continually to attach fothepax*chase of land, tlie company would •not be safe in granting' a" single free passage to any one of; the labouring class j •for' they might at any/moment be called 'upon to expend upon the person of theproprietor that fund which 1 is' mainly, destined' to enable the labourers,' mechanics, and their wives, to proceed to New Zealand. The important" principle upon which the colbnization of South Australia and 1 New Zealand is based must never be lost sight of for a- moment. ThY purpose of selling the land at 11. per acre is ,to obtain a fund with which 1 .to convey the industrious classes there in sufficient numbers. They cannot get there unless their passages are provided for them,, and the land is valueless without the combined services of labour and capital. The price of 11. is supposed- to yield a fund' that will convey four persons for every hundred acres sold. The fund, though sufficient for that purpose, is- not sufficient to perform it and. to carry out capitalists or employers.; and if they claim free passages to that extent they diminish the supply of labour. If they dissipate the fund beyond a certain extent, then labour mayattain rto a price which will make the colony, a. place of unprofitable investment to the capitalist. The evil" would-, cure itself,, doubtless but- at the expense of the prosperity of the colony. There- will- never s be any difficulty in securing to the colonies a sufficient',number of the employing class. The difficulty always has been, and must be,- in obtaining a- sufficient 1 num^er'df the class -to be employed^ to cau«g a state'" of society mutually beneficial: The? creation and- preservation' of this due proportion is the striking"tfeature peculiar to colonies having a system' of land 1 selling,- furnishing a fund/with which to grant'free passages to a> sufficient extent, and those* which (have it not, -or not in- a sufficient degree— and hereafter it will be found to be the great cause*"of their superior prosperity. Instead* of invading 'this fund,, the'colonists,' if alive-- •to i tMeir own 1 interest, will hastened- devise means By which if may be increased 1 Were the -South- Australian people' to -regard their own interest^ they would further augment the* emigration fuhd by T ari'annual impost 1 of 6d. per head on sMeepi and' Is. per head' up.on cattle. WJbdtever' is* done- to' supply' labour J in a sufficient qnatntity tb* the" colony; to be done: successfully^ must'be dbne Tiponsys'temi It miistfiiotf b^voluitty^-all niiist "contribute ih a^KHe^gree, or tKe a^tfempt must be futile,. TJB£ plah of deriving a
fond of the kind through the first sale price of land has this as its basis. Some may state, were the fund required not contributed in the nominal price of land, it might be expenfted in an independent manner by each proprietor. But if 4eft to the sense of justice of the individual, would this contribution to the labour fund be made Would not each hope to derive labour at the cost of his neighbour? Has that not pccurred in a thousand cases already in the colonies If there were no system by which all were obliged to contribute to the conveyance of labour, in the degree in which they became purchasers of land, some would be foolish enough to convey servants, as many have done, to America and the old Australian colonies, at their individual expense, trusting to the gratitude and sense of justice of those whose condition they had thereby so much improved. They would be, as others have been, disappointed. Those, who had not incurred the expense of conveying the labburers to the colony are the persons who could afford to pay the highest wages. They would make offers which would be accepted, and the result would be that disgust which would not arise if by a system all were obliged to contribute to the labour fund, in the degree in which a demand was made upon the labour market that mode, or the mode which is the nearest to it, is selling the land and dividing its proceeds in the manner pursued by South Australia and the new colony of New Zealand. The Preliminary Expedition. The Tory, a fine ship of 400 tons, left the river early in May, and finally sailed from Plymouth on the 12th, with Col. Wakefield, principal officer of the company, on board, bound to New Zealand, to take possession of large tracts of land already purchased, and to treat with the natives for an extension of the company's territory. A letter has been received from the Tory, dated June 3rd, in lat. 5 deg. 30 m. north, and long. 23 deg. 17 m. west, stating all to be well onboard. As there can be little doubt the Tory has arrived in Cook's Straits by this date, despatches from thence may#be expected by the 15th of December next. The Surveying Vessel. The Cuba, Capt. Newcombe, a bark of 270 tons, left the river at the end of July, and passed Deal on the 2nd August. Capt. Smith, It. A., surveyor-general to the New Zealand Land Company, with such a corps as this intelligent and energetic officer deemed sufficient to proceed rapidly with the surveys, were the passengers. After landing these gentlemen the Cuba will be occupied in making purchases of land and coast-surveying. Public Accommodation. One of the emigrants proceeding to the colony with the first expedition, goes under an engagement to open a house for the accommodation of the colonists of New Zealand. Justice to the Aborigines. This •phrase has excited the pleasantry of very many individuals. The conduct of the people of South Australia towards the aborigines has associated truth with these words. The Land Company of New Zealand has commenced its operations by reserving a quantity equal to one-tenth of the town and •country lauds recently disposed of. At the lottery for priority of choice, the native reserves proved greatly to exceed the average of fortune. If these lands be well managed there is little doubt they will be worth 100,000/. in ten years, and at the Australian rate of 10 per cent, per annum, will yield a revenue of 10,000/. pledged to be applied to the use and benefit of the natives of New Zealand. This will be the result of the sale of a single township. ,The prospect of a large fund for the civilization of the natives is truly promising, and will convince the most sceptical that no idle mockery or dishonest purpose is cloaked in the use of this phrase. Extract/rom the minutes of a meeting of the Coinniittee of the Aborigines Protection Sqciety, held on the 10th of August, 1839 Resolved That this Committee receives with pleasure intelligence respecting the measures adopted by t^e New Zealand Land with reference to portions of land set aside by them for Aborigines in the neighbourhood of their intended settlement the Committee, however, conceives, that in order to give complete effect to the intention of the Company, it is desirable that the portions of land so; .reserved should be iinmer diately vested in Truttees for the tote benefit of the natives"
COLONIZATION OF NEW ZEALAND. "Mr Francis Baring,' on June 19, 1838, moved. the second reading of the bill for the Provisional Government of British Settlements in the Islands of New Zealand." ,He commenced his speech by a statement of the oiigin of the project, and the bitter and interested animosity by which it had been assailed— It is now nearly two years since a number of gentlemen, encouraged by the increasing interest which the public took in the matter, and by the knowledge of circumstances which had come under their observation, formed themselves into an association for the purpose of establishing a British colony in New Zealand. They had assembled a large mass of oral and documentary evidence upon the subject. They had sought the evidence of all those whose opinion was worth consulting, either from local knowledge or from connexion in any way with the distant countries into which they were anxious to introduce our religion, our customs, and our laws and the result they arrived at was, that it was not only expedient as far as the interest of their own country is concerned that their intention should be persisted in, but that they owed it to the natives as a correction of the evils which their communication with us had already entailed upon them. They found that these islands, which, according to the principles followed by other countries, had been acquired by the British Crown by those forms of taking possession which have ever been allowed to constitute a claim against other civilized nations, were situated in a temperate latitude, with a soil of remarkable fertility, a climate perfectly suited to the constitutions of English emigrants, and productions not only ef great value commercially, but of especial importance as rendering us independent of other countries for some of the most important of their productions. They found that their position rendered them of so much importance to our growing settlements in Australia, that the possession of them by any foreign power would endanger the stability of our empire in that part of the .world and above all, their researches led them to the conviction that there had arisen, from the settlement on the islands of a lawless and degraded population, an obstacle to any moral improvement in the natives, which was every year assuming a more serious aspect, and which a very short delay might make it impossible to remove. They trusted to this latter circumstance for the obtaining the sanction of the missionary body and they confided in the anxiety for the material welfare of the country which government is supposed to entertain, for the ensuring their support to a plan in the success of which they conceived that the stability of our dominions in those seas was involved. They accordingly brought in a bill." Here Mr Baring briefly stated the principal provisions of the bill, with which the readers of the Spectator are already acquainted. The names of the commissioners printed in the bill were those of the committee of the New Zealand Association but Mr Baring would not insist on these names, but leave the nomination to ministers and the House in a future stage of the proceedings. He proceeded to unmask the character of, the opposition to the bill— To this bill there arose an opposition from a quarter whence we least expected it. It commenced by a series of pamphlets circulated in the dark by the secretary of the Christian Missionary Society, ia which our motives were impugned, and the existence questioned of all those feelings by which honourable men should be influenced. It was announced that we were recurring to the old pretence of civilization and advancement of religion, while there was upon the face of our plan sufficient indication of a design to repeat at the expense of the natives that oppression, and those excesses of arbitrary power, which at all times, and in all other countries, had marked the progress of the European invader, and even degraded the name of civilization that the sovereignty of the native tribes, which was inherent in them, and, if it wanted confirmation, had been assured by a formal recognition by the British resident, was to be called in question that we were an association of jobbers, whose only object was trading in land, which all their accounts re presented as impossible to be obtained and that we should be the means of impeding the great work of religion, and civilization, which, under the superintendence of the missionary body, was rapidly and unfailingly going on. We could not but suppose that when our motives were explained, and the object of our bill fully made known, this opposition founded, as we then supposed it to be, solely upon motives of sympathy for the natives, and alarm on the part of those who had constituted themselves their natural guardians, would' give way before a calm examination of the provisions of the bill. We were conscious of having given every protection in our power to the tribes of having fenced and guarded their interest with a minuteness of jealous care which in some measure complicated our bill, and encumbered it with provisions which constituted almost the only difficulty of execution. But when we found every overture rejected, we did begin to suspect the existence of some motives beyond those which Mr Coates had thought expedient to avow. Sir, those suspicions have been more than confirmed. Upon a close and searching inquiry, we became convinced that it was less from a desire to expose our motives than to conceal their own hot so much a desire to protect the New Zealander from excess of power on our part, as to maintain the influence which, from motives which appear rather less than spiritual, they had been engaged in founding, that they had raised an opposition which in its tone and j language is little in accordance with those doctrines of justice and charity which they so loudly profess. Sir, some curious facts have come out in the course of this inquiry. The difficulty of obtaining land has been solved by the missionaries themselves." Here Mr Baring showed that land to a large extent had been purchased by members of the Church Missionary Society, on 'their own account and that one of them, Mr Henry Williams, sold the produce of his estates to the mission, of which he was the chair? man. AMr Fairburn had bought a tract of land thirty miles in length. Messrs Hemp and Davis had each four or five thousand acres, which they farmed themselves so had Mr Clark and Mr Baker, and several other members of the missionary body. Some of Mr Fairburn's land was part of the tract
sold to an English company in 1825, which the natives had always held sacred, and against the sale of which to Mr Fairburn some of them pro tested, in consequence of the previous transfer. It appeared that the Chmch Missionary Society was by no means so successful in the work of conversion as the Wesleyans. The whole number of communicants belonging to the former was only 180, to the latter 1,000 although the church missionaries were five times as numerous as the Wesleyans, and their expenses much* greater in proportion to their numbers. Mr Baring continued Is it to be supposed that the worldly circumstances have no influence over the stale of things spiritual? Do we not know that the churches are more deserted, that the schools are less earnestly supported? I might make statements upon this subject with less hazard than Mr Coates incurred when he collected imputations against the motives of -the association with which lam connected and I say so with less hesitation, for I should not want facts or. testimony to support them. But, Sir, is there I nothing to alter Mr Coates's views, ia the evidence J as to the state of the country, which is contained in the dispatches lately received from Mr Busby, the British resident, and Captain Hobson, who was sent by the Governor of New South Wales on a special mission to report on the spot? His well-known connection with some of the persons employed in the Colonial Office, leads me to suppose it to be difficult that he should not have been cognizant of some of those dispatches even before he made his first statement; but I will allow him, for the sake of his character for sincerity, the benefit of ignorance on this occasion. But what is the state of society which has grown up under the mild government of the mission] Are not wars, murders, and every possible excess rife in all parts of the island have they succeeded in putting an end to the system of slavery which everywhere exists; have they ventured to .attempt it are they in a position to counteract the gangrenous influences of the society of runaway sailors and escaped convicts, which is daily augmenting in a frightful proportion can they oppose any barrier to the vicious example against which their precepts must struggle in vain, or set any bounds to the profligacy and excesses which are introducing disease and premature mortality into all the districts with which they are in contact? Are we not aware, sir, that all the great religious reformers among barbarous nations have established their creeds by connecting its precepts with the material prosperity of those whom they wished to influence; and, in some cases, by making nrticles of faith many of those regulations rendered necessary by the habits, prejudices, and even the climate of the country to which they are adapted, and which with our purer religion and more rational morality we should leave to be provided lor by human institutions Can they suppose that these poor savages will not connect the evil doings of these supposed adherents of the new religion with the tenets of their religion, and that in many cases the example will not be more powerful than the precept lam not blind to the sacrifices and exertions of the missionary body no one is more ready to acknowledge them. Whatever good is achieved in these islands, they will have been the primary cause of and the best proof I can give of good feeling towards them, is my readiness to separate them from the person who has constituted himself their organ here, to attribute to them purer motives and a more disinterested zeal. But the time has come when their exertions can no longer singly avail and we had hoped that in the plan we had produced they would have found the best co-operation with their labours, and the surest corrective of the evils against which, unaided, they cannot struggle, in the example of a moral and well-ordered community." The next branch of Air Baring's speech was a detail of the negotiation with the government, and interviews with Lords Melbourne, Hovvick, and Glenelg, during the last twelvemonth. From this it appeared, that at first Lords Melbourne and Howick had given decided encouragement to the project then thwarted it and so on, backwards and forwards, till at last Lord Glenelg, -finding the association ready to act upon every reasonable suggestion of the government, hit upon a condition which he knew could not be complied with namely, that they should become a joint-stock company. Air Baring showed that the principle on which it was proposed to colonize New Zealand could not be put into successful operation by a trading company, whose first object must be the purchase and sale of land with a view to profit. Jt was curious that while Messrs Coates and Beecham, in their pamphlets, vilified the association as a joint-stock company, the government opposed the bill because it did not constitute a joint-stock company. What would the government do of itself] Having made this statement of what passed between her Majesty's government and the association, I am led to inquire what remedy or what palliative will this government of expedients be induced to adopt? I can hardly think that the native congress, recommended by Mr Busby, with the adoption of collateral measures, such as the establishments of courts, &c. none of which can be admitted without assuming the sovereignty they affect to disclaim can be in their contemplation. They must know that no number of Europeans, are likely to submit to a legislative assembly at Waimate and that by the time the missionaries have made the first step in their constitutional education, half the population will have disappeared, and the' white -invader will have increased twenty-fold. If. they mean to plant factories at the bottom of every bay where Europeans resort, I would ask them to estimate the probable consequence of small communities without commerce, without combined labour, arts, institutions, and religion, being grouped round twenty isolated points in the two islands. Let them look to Swan River, and the expense I believe nearly 30,000/.— which' that settlement of fifteen hundred persons entails upon the country; to the chances of collisions with the natives, which weak and ill-ordered communities only serve to invite to the irregular purchase and disposal of lands and to the thousand evils consequent upon their dissemination. It may be objected to us, 'that the same difficulties will attend bur enterprise, and that small communities- would spring up which we could not control. Our answer is simple. Such commu-
I. nities would not>be established.' In the formation of a great European society,^ we should have all the advantages of high wages, increasing value of property, and, above all, protection to those who joined it. Commerce would centre at the point where supply and consumption are most certain and there would be no inducement to any, one to resign the certain advantages of a civilized and growing community, to seek a dangerous^ and precarious livelihood where there could be no .security of obtaining the commonest necessaries of life. Sir, I appeal to the house against the decision of her Majesty's ministers, with a full hope that we shall not appeal in vain in favour of a project fraught with advan* tages so important and so certain to the empire at large."